The Deviant Skrulls are commonly known as "Skrulls".
This page is about the Skrulls as a species. For the Skrulls as a group, please refer to the Skrull Empire page.


Skrull Cows (Earth-616) from Fantastic Four Vol 1 2 0001

First appearance


The Skrulls are a race of green-skinned humanoids from the Andromeda Galaxy. They are a fierce warrior race who carved for themselves the oldest interstellar empire in the universe's history. Skrull science is generally at a higher level than the science of human civilization. The Skrulls were ruled by an Emperor or Empress, who had absolute power.[citation needed]


The ancestors of the Skrulls were allegedly created by the Xorrians (along with all humanoid life-forms, such as Kree and Humans) from their own DNA.[11][1] These Skrull ancestors resided on Skrullos, a planet in the Drox system.

Almost a billion years ago the Celestials arrived and experimented on the Skrulls' reptilian ancestors. As the Celestials did with humans, they split the species into three branches: the "normal/latent/Prime" branch who were capable of eventually rapidly evolving into Celestial-like beings, the shape-shifting Deviant branch, and the immortal Eternal branch. As in the case with humans, the Deviant and Eternal branches went to war. Unlike the case with humans, however, the Deviant branch wiped out all other Skrulls, thus all modern Skrulls were descendants of the Deviant branch. The Skrulls later (or earlier)[12] split into two more groups, being the modern Skrulls and the Dire Wraiths, a parasitic race that could still shape-shift and had use of magic, but were not as technologically advanced as the Skrulls. Dire Wraith's are analogous to the Skrulls as vampires are to humans.[citation needed]

Early Years

Their shape-shifting powers aided the Skrulls' departure into space. When they encountered a new race, they simply transformed themselves to resemble that race. The Skrull Empire that resulted from these contacts was based on free trade and mutual cooperation. In the beginning the Skrulls were a peaceful, scientifically inclined race. Their scientists also formed the first Cosmic Cube that later became the Shaper of Worlds.[citation needed]

The Kree


Kree versus Skrulls War.

Then trouble struck. The Skrulls voyaged to the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. In the latter cluster they discovered the Kree home-world of Hala. The Kree were in the dawn of their culture; at this point they shared Hala with the plant race, the Cotati. The Skrull decided to favor one of the races with their advanced technology and devised a test to determine which would be the favored race.[citation needed]

The Skrulls created the Blue Area of the Moon and transported bands of Kree and Cotati there. Both groups were left to accomplish what they could. The Skrulls judged the Cotati’s works to be superior. This angered the Kree and led to a vicious attack in which the Kree band slew the Skrull judges and the Cotati. The Kree stole the Skrull's star-ship and technology. Because of the immense distances involved, decades passed before the Skrulls learned of the Kree's activities. By this time it was too late. The Kree had become advanced and audacious enough to attack the Skrulls in their home galaxy. During the millennia that followed, the Skrulls developed the vicious streak needed to conduct intergalactic war. Their entire culture was remade in the warrior image as the war began.[citation needed]

100,000 years ago the Skrull capital was relocated to Tarnax IV, later renamed Throneworld. The Skrull empire was controlled by an Emperor and each of the 978 worlds was controlled by a Governor.[citation needed]


Skrulls became aware of Earth when they discovered a space warp linking Earth and Throneworld. Later they discovered that the Earth possessed an equidistant link to Hala. They saw Earth as a world to conquer but they were content to hold off a full invasion, perhaps afraid the Kree would learn of the plot. Because of their caution, the Skrulls sent only a handful of scout warriors to infiltrate Earth.[citation needed]

The Skrull agents revealing how they imitated the FF

Fearing the Fantastic Four would stand in their way of an invasion of Earth, four Skrull agents came to Earth and posed as the team in order to ruin their reputation. The real Fantastic Four were able to expose the Skrull agents and clear their names. The Fantastic Four stole the Skrulls' rocket ship and found their mother-ship in Earth orbit. Posing as the Skrull agents, they tricked the captain into believing that Earth was too dangerous to invade. Reed Richards "volunteered" to stay behind and remove any trace of the Skrulls' presence on Earth. Falling for Richard's deception, the captain called off the invasion. Once back on Earth the Fantastic Four hid the remaining Skrull agents by convincing them to transform into cows. Reed hypnotized them into believing they were real cows. They were left in a field to graze for the rest of their lives.[13]

Over the years, the Skrull empire sent many agents against Earth, including the Super-Skrull,[14][15] Paibok the Power Skrull,[citation needed] Effigy,[citation needed] Ethan Edwards,[citation needed] and Skrull-X.[citation needed]


The Skrull throneworld was devoured by Galactus and the Imperial starfleet destroyed by Galactus's herald, Nova (Frankie Raye). With the destruction of a central government, the Skrull Empire collapsed into hundreds of bickering factions. Their galaxy was now filled with Governors declaring themselves “Emperor". The Shi'ar maintained a heavy presence in the former empire as well, constantly dealing with pockets of resistance.[citation needed]

The greatest blow to the Skrulls was the destruction of their shape-shifting powers for a time due to their Hyper-Wave Bomb which stabilized the deviant genetic code of all Skrulls everywhere that granted their abilities. This was accomplished by Reed Richards and yet another Governor-turned-Emperor.[16]

The Skrulls later broke a peace treaty with the Kree. They maintained their military drive and preferred to fight rather than negotiate. Among the other races contained within the Skrull Empire were the Druff, Guna, Kallusians, Morani, Pheragots, Queega, Tekton, and Yirbek races. Other races remained independent, whether through treaties or open resistance. Such races include the Ciegrimites, Gegku, Krylorians, Wilameanis, and Xandarians. The war with the Xandarians ended with the destruction of Xandar by the supervillainess Nebula.[citation needed]

There were a small number of Skrull who were the equivalent of mutants. They were outcasts and often shunned or hunted by other Skrulls. One group, Cadre K, was trained by Professor X.[citation needed]

Annihilation Wave and Secret Invasion

The Skrull Empire was the first of the major interstellar empires to be invaded by the forces of Annihilus. The Annihilation Wave's super weapon, the Harvester of Sorrow, destroyed 90% of Skrull planets. In the aftermath the Skrulls unsuccessfully attempted to convince Hulkling to become their new Emperor.[citation needed]

With almost all their planets destroyed and under the leadership of the extremist Queen Veranke, the Skrulls infiltrated Earth for a major assault. Several heroes were replaced by Skrulls. Eventually, Reed Richards was able to pierce through the shape-shifting and all heroes and villains banded together to stop the Skrulls. Unfortunately, the Skrull activated a fail-safe within the Wasp, turning her into a biological weapon. Thor had no choice but to "destroy" her. Angered, the humans attacked the Skrulls, killing Veranke and destroying their fleet in orbit in retaliation. All the missing heroes, villains and S.H.I.E.L.D. agents were found alive and returned to Earth.[citation needed]

With the lost of the Skrull planets during the Annihilation Wave in addition to the death of Skrull forces and its queen on Earth, the Skrull Empire was officially decimated.[17]


The Super-Skrull Kl'rt became one of many Warlords seeking to re-unite the divided Skrull territories, eventually growing in power and influence until he became one of the six most powerful Warlords.[citation needed]

When the mysterious Builders began their invasion of the various space empires, the remnants of the Skrull Empire among them, the Warlords united against this common foe. When news of a War Council of various galactic powers reached the Skrulls, Kl'rt was chosen to represent the Skrulls. An alliance was created, with Kl'rt commanding the Skrulls and playing a key role in the council.[18]

The war initially went poorly, but the alliance eventually managed to turn the tide and through a series of key battles, the Builders were defeated and the worlds occupied by them liberated.[19] In order to repay the efforts of the Avengers in the war, and seeking glory and great battle, Kl'rt accompanied Alliance forces to Earth in order to free it from occupation by Thanos. They succeeded in liberating The Peak and killing one of Thanos' lieutenants, Black Dwarf.[citation needed]

After his great victory in the war against the Builders, Kl'rt was crowned Emperor of a reborn Skrull Empire, as the alien race now settled on the planet Tarnax II.[20]



The Skrulls are oviparous:[2] Skrull females did not give live birth; instead, they lay eggs like their reptilian evolutionary ancestors. Skrull children were known as "hatchlings". Despite their reptilian evolutionary roots, however, Skrulls have hair and the females had mammary glands and nursed their young.


It was known that Skrulls were capable of producing hybrid offspring with humans and Kree:[2] the Skrull Lyja was able to conceive with the Human Torch, and Hulkling was the son of the Kree Mar-Vell and the Skrull princess Anelle.

On Earth-9997, it was revealed that Thanos was a hybrid of Eternals and Skrulls, as his mother Sui-San was in fact a Skrull.[21]

Diseases and Genetic Conditions


The Skrull prince Klundirk was affected with cancer.[22]


On Earth-829, Skyppi contracted a form of tuberculosis common to the Skrull species.[23]

Mutants and Skrull Evolution

The Skrulls were stated to be given genetic and molecular instability and genetic diversity from the Celestials' experimentation.[24]

However, with the elimination of the "Normals" went away their capacity for benevolent mutation, and have existed at their current level of evolution for millions of years.[25] The Prime Skrull demonstrated the latent mutant abilities of his kind.[26]

Also, at some point, the Skrull species (like the Kree) became genetically frozen in place and was unable to evolve further due to a single member of the Skrull species abusing the power of the Crystal of Ultimate Vision. As punishment, the Crystal "genetically froze their evolution in place",[27] and allowing them to move forward only through artificial genetic manipulation.[28]

After the loss of their shapeshifting abilities, tests showed that the genetic mutation couldn't be accomplished by a male Skrull but could be induced by part of a female's life force in order to return such ability. S'Byll's shapeshifting ability was returned, enhanced.[29] She was considered a mutant by the Stranger.[30]

Lord Merek began a fecundity-supplement programs who caused mutations (K-Class births) to appear in great numbers, possessing various powers.[31][32] Skrull mutants were used to recreate the Warskrull genome.[33]


New Avengers Illuminati Vol 1 5 Reveal

A Super Skrull

A normal Skrull can only take on the appearance of their template, not the abilities of that person. Warskrulls, an elite group of Skrulls gifted with the ability to emulate the powers as well as the appearance of their templates.[34] Warskrulls do not naturally have this ability; instead, special encoding technology is used to grant them their powers.

Once lost, the use of Mutant Skrulls permitted the recreation of the Warskrulls' genome.[1]

Alternate Realities


There Skrulls of the Counter-Earth pocket dimension were mostly wiped out by Galactus. Among the survivors were Kl'rt who worked with Dr. Doom to experiment on the Silver Surfer. He absorbed some of the Surfer's power cosmic and gained additional powers. He was slain by the Fantastic Four.[35]


When Counter-Earth was briefly merged with Earth-50, the Skrulls were part of a massive invasion of Earth.[36]


The Kree and Skrull races were in conflict with each other until Galactus consumed the Skrull home-world. One survivor, Skymax, sought out survivors, bringing him to Earth where he rescued Joe Ledger and endowed him with the Power Prism. Both Ledger and Skymax joined the Squadron Supreme. Skymax maintained and off-and-on membership with the organization.[citation needed]


Many of the Skrull' early attempts to invade the Earth led to clashes with the Fantastic Four. The Super-Skrull battled the Fantastic Four when the Invisible Girl was replaced by Spider-Man, leading to the Super-Skrull's defeat.[citation needed]


History diverged during the Kree-Skrull War when Ronan the Accuser slayed Rick Jones. At that time Kree hero Captain Marvel was a prisoner of the Skrulls and was being forced to build an Omni-Wave Projector. Completing his task he used it to attempt to contact Rick and learned that his friend was dead. Marvel, Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver battled the Skrull forces. Their leader Dorrek VII released the Super Skrull and sent him to destroy Captain Marvel. When Dorrek's daughter Anelle begged her father to stop the fighting he slapped her. Anelle then left and sided with the heroes. In the final battle, Mar-Vell slayed the Super-Skrull, while Dorrek VII was killed in battle against rebel forces against his rule. Anelle succeeded Dorrek as leader of the Skrulls and ordered them to stand down all hostilities. She then began working with Captain Marvel, who had just been appointed ruler of the Kree by the Supreme Intelligence to forge everlasting peace between their two races.[37]


Skrulls (Earth-928) 2099 Manifest Destiny Vol 1 1

In 2399 A.D. the Skrulls were among those races who still remembered being wrecked up by "those annoying earthlings" centuries earlier and so were smart enough to act polite.[38]


The Skrulls posed as the "S People" and sent out boxes that emitted cosmic rays. They promised that the boxes would fulfill the receiver's wildest fantasies, however in reality they were supposed to turn humans into mindless slaves. One such box was sent to the bullpen at Marvel Comics and they were mutated and banded together as the Fantastic Four. Ultimately the Fantastic Four and Namor learned the truth and foiled the Skrull plot.[39]


Skrulls (Earth-1298)

The Skrulls were enslaved by SHIELD and turned into training dummies who were shapeshifted into dangerous mutants like Magneto and his X-Men or Havok and The Six.[40]


In this reality, the Skrulls are one of the many races inhabiting Patchworld. At some point prior to their first appearance, they lost the throneworld of their empire, Tarnax-IV, to Galactus[41]. After his, the surviving Skrulls emigrated to Satriani. However, the race was deemed such a threat to galactic stability by the other races of Patchworld that the Synode put an embargo on Satriani, making it impossible for the Skrulls to ship weapons to their planet or prepare for warfare.[42] To get rid of the embargo, Warpriest Kh'oja send four Skrulls to Earth, where they impersonated the young superhero team Power Pack in order to infiltrate S.W.O.R.D. and steal a planetary force field disruptor that would allow the Skrulls to remove the force field around Satriani.[43]. The plan failed because Corporale Paibok, who was posing as Jack Power, betrayed the mission since he'd rather stay on Earth.[43]


The Skrulls were under siege from Galactus when the heroes led by Captain America were looking for the Muonic Inducer. After helping Veranke escape, the heroes fought through Galactus's minions and the Skrulls. Titannus was also on a rampage targeting the Skrull scientists. If the Skrull homeworld is saved, they will help Earth when the Kree threaten to enslave humanity. Otherwise, the sector of space will destabilize as the Kree and Skrull go to war with one another, costing millions of lives.[citation needed]


The Skrulls attempted to invade the Earth and battled that realities Fantastic Four, a version of the team that has vastly different powers than most other realities. Although the Skrulls were defeated the details surrounding this encounter remains unrecorded.[citation needed]


The Skrulls were in a centuries long war with the Kree. Thanks to the manipulations of the Supreme Intelligence, the heroes Rick Jones, Captain Marvel, and the Avengers worked together to end the Kree/Skrull War much like they did on Earth-616.[44]


On Earth-9047, the Skrulls freely move around the population and can be employed -a Skrull was seen on a queue for a job as guest star and driver for the Quasi-Humans,[45] and the music band The Beatles were Skrulls.[46] Human beings can mutate and become "Skrulks", as happened on Finigan's Island.[47]

A story that was probably out-of-continuity suggested that a great percentage of superhuman beings, and even non-superhumans, on Earth-9047 were shapeshifting Skrulls infiltrating. This whole plot was dismissed by a Marvel editor named René (Whittaeker), officially because it was too far-fetched, but really because René was a Skrull secret agent.[48]


Skrulls (Earth-9230) What If Fallen Son Vol 1 1

Skrulls of Earth-9230

After the events following the death of Tony Stark, the Skrulls were able to infiltrate spies in the place of key people on Earth so they could invade it after many heroes who were against the Superhuman Registration Act were imprisoned.[49]


The Skrulls are the native inhabitants of Mars with both shape-shifting and psionic abilities. J'onn J'onzz, a.k.a. Mister X, left his home-world for Earth to avoid his more violent brethren.[citation needed]


The Skrulls attempted to sabotage the American space program circa the 1950's by having one of their own disguise himself as Vice-President Richard Nixon. This plot was foiled thanks to the time travelling Immortus who revealed the plot. Immortus sought to destroy any reality in which the human race would travel to the stars and used the Forever Crystal to eliminate Earth-9904 from existence.[citation needed]


Skrulls (Earth-9997) Universe X Vol 1 0

Skrulls of Earth X

The Skrulls were one of many alien races manipulated by the Celestials as part of their complex reproduction plans. The Skrulls had reached the third tier of mutation when they had first encounter the Kree race. The once peaceful Skrulls were "willed" to be brutal enemies by the Kree who were angered at the losing a contest with the Cotati, leading to the Kree/Skrull War.[citation needed]

The Shaper of Worlds was also a member of the Skrull race who was transformed into a Cosmic Cube and later regained his sentience, hence his Skrull like face.[citation needed]Sui-San, wife of Mentor was also a Skrull in disguise, and as such both her children Thanos and Starfox are both part Skrull.[citation needed]


Earth being a planet devoid of super-humans, is was the planet ideal for Skrull conquest. When the Skrulls began the initial stages of their invasion of Earth on Christmas Eve, they found unlikely opposition from a homeless man named Jesse who had been endowed with the power of Nova. Jesse sacrificed his life to stop the Skrull invasion, blowing up their ship and killing all the Skrulls aboard.[50]


Skrull technology allowed all humans to become "Capes" or super-humans. In a sinister plot, the Skrulls returned and integrated the world's powers into their "Super-Skrull" armor.[9] The Skrulls then eliminated all of the humans, including three members of the Fantastic Four. The only remaining human was the non-powered Ben Grimm who pummeled the now non-powered Skrull invader.[51]

The Skrulls stated that the term "Chitauri" as it relates to their race, is a "very offensive term". Skrulls regard the word as "politically incorrect",[8] and that the Chitauri were just a gang of criminals.[9]


When an ancient spacecraft is found deep in the Louisiana Bayou, the Avengers and Fantastic Four were brought in to investigate. Taking the ship back to Avengers Tower the two groups open it to discover a Kree scouting party who had been sent to Earth centuries ago to await battle with the Skrulls.[52]


Skrulls (Earth-91126) Marvel Zombies Return Vol 1 5

Skrulls of Earth-Z

An undead horde of Skrulls led by Black Panther of an alternate reality clashed with the zombified Avengers and were annihilated.[53]


The Skrulls are a race in Earth-534834 (Marvel Action Hour).[54][55]


Skrulls (Earth-4290001) New Avengers Vol 3 16.NOW

Skrulls of Earth-4290001

The Skrulls formed a coalition with the Kree to invade Earth and there defeated its champions Archetypes of J.U.S.T.I.C.E., but this led to the formation of a group of outcasts anti-heroes, the Great Society that managed to defeat the coalition.[56]

Powers and Abilities


  • Shape-shifting: Skrulls are able to alter their forms into that of anything they can imagine, be it organic or inorganic. It must, however, be solid. They can assume the form of someone but not their powers. When they imitate an inorganic object, they take on its appearance, but not its properties. They can also use their abilities to grow extra limbs. They have no apparent size limit, as they are been seen to assume the form of a common housefly, and shapes many times larger than their normal selves. Skrulls can also use their shape-shifting capabilities to change their sex: males can become females and vice versa. Skrulls only take on the appearance of an object or person and none of that object or person’s characteristics. There is a limit to the size of the object or person a Skrull can imitate. The average Skrull cannot distend his or her mass any more than 1.5 times as large a volume as his or her original volume, nor can he or she contract his or her mass any more than 0.75 a volume as his or her original.
    • Elasticity, Plasticity, Elongation: Their shape-shifting abilities allow them to alter their bodies in much the same way as Mr. Fantastic, so that they can stretch to great lengths, or form other shapes with their bodies, such as balls, parachutes, or anything else.
      • Flight: They are able to fly by shape-shifting a pair of wings onto their back, or turning their arms into wings.
    • Size Alteration: They are also capable of altering their size independently of altering their form, allowing them to grow or shrink while maintaining their current form
    • Mimicry: Skrulls are cunning spies due to their ability to mimic sounds and voices. This is mainly used in conjunction with the shapes they shift into.

Skrulls using their shape-shifting to fly


Weapon Formation: Skrulls are able to use their shapeshifting abilities to form weapons with parts of their bodies. For instance, they can shape their arms into blades or clubs including guns. This ability makes them dangerous hand-to-hand combatants.

Average Strength level



Skrull Shape-Shifting: Skrulls only take on the appearance of an object or person and none of that object or person’s characteristics. There is a limit to the size of the object or person a Skrull can imitate. The average Skrull cannot distend his or her mass any more than 1.5 times as large a volume as his or her original volume, nor can he or she contract his or her mass any more than 0.75 a volume as his or her original.


Gravity: Earth-like
Atmosphere: Earth-like
Population: 30 billion (prior to Annihilation Wave attack); currently unknown.



Type of Government: Totalitarian monarchy under a single Emperor or Emperess (succession disrupted by destruction of Tarnax IV, death of surviving royal family members, and ensuring civil wars, re-instated with the crowning of the new Emperor, Kl'rt I).
Level of Technology: Superior to Earth; Advanced warp-drive star-ships, robots, cyborg, cybernetic technology, and energy weaponry.
Cultural Traits: Warrior Race. The entire Skrull economy is built around its military pushing their tendency to instigate wars and campaigns of conquest.[62]



Main article: Skrull Dictionary

The Skrulls speak different languages and dialects, among them the Irdu Dialect of the Skrull Thort Language,[63][64] the Tligi Dialect of the Skrull Language.[65] and the Skrullian.[66]


Photon Blaster: Standard issue military sidearm.



  • While the average Skrull will fearlessly and loyally execute any duties, he will also try to find ways to better his own position. A Skrull will betray another Skrull if it is to his own advantage.[citation needed]
  • The Skrulls are somewhat associated with the Chitauri.


Recommended Readings

See Also

Links and References


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Skrulls! #1
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Marvel Fact Files #2
  3. Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #2; Dire Wraiths' entry
  4. Uncanny X-Men #376, opposed to Mutant Skrulls
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 2 #12
  6. 6.0 6.1 Rom #50
  7. Ultimate Secrets #1
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ultimate Fantastic Four #27
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Ultimate Fantastic Four #28
  10. Incredible Hercules #120
  11. Thor #215
  12. Silver Surfer Vol 3 #5
  13. Fantastic Four #2
  14. Fantastic Four #18
  15. Fantastic Four #32
  16. Fantastic Four Annual #19
  17. Secret Invasion #8
  18. Avengers Vol 5 #18
  19. Infinity #5
  20. Infinity #6
  21. Universe X #X
  22. Spider-Woman Vol 6 #3-4
  23. Hercules: Twilight of a God #1
  24. Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Master Edition #30
  25. Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #10
  26. Blackwulf #10
  27. Uncanny X-Men Annual #1987
  28. Skrulls! #1; Citadel of Light and Shadow's entry
  29. 29.0 29.1 Silver Surfer Vol 3 #25
  30. Silver Surfer Vol 3 #27
  31. Maximum Security: Dangerous Planet #1
  32. Skrulls! #1Cadre K's entry
  33. Skrulls! #1Warskrulls' entry
  34. Uncanny X-Men #274-277
  35. Fantastic Four Vol 2 #6
  36. Fantastic Four Vol 2 #13
  37. What If? #20
  38. 2099: Manifest Destiny #1
  39. What If? #11
  40. Mutant X #18
  41. Skrulls Vs. Power Pack #1
  42. Skrulls Vs. Power Pack #2
  43. 43.0 43.1 Skrulls Vs. Power Pack #3
  44. What If? #12
  45. Marble Movie Madness: Driving Medoozy in What The--?! #21
  46. World Tour 1992' in What The--?! #17
  47. What if… Charlie America landed on Finigan's Island? in What The--?! #18
  48. Tales of the Snatchers in What The--?! #21
  49. What If? Fallen Son #1
  50. What If? #15
  51. Ultimate Fantastic Four #29
  52. New Avengers Marvel Salutes the U.S. Military #1
  53. Marvel Zombies Return #5
  54. The Marvel Action Hour: The Fantastic Four
  56. New Avengers Vol 3 #16.NOW
  57. Annihilation: Super-Skrull #1
  58. Infinity: Against the Tide: Infinite Comic #2
  59. Fantastic Four #257
  60. 60.0 60.1 Fantastic Four #383
  61. Annihilation: Super-Skrull #3
  62. Fantastic Four The Universal Guide
  63. New Avengers #40
  64. What If...? World War Hulk #1
  65. Mighty Avengers #12
  66. Fantastic Four Annual #18
  67. Avengers #133-134
  68. Avengers Annual #14
  69. Marvel: Ultimate Alliance
  70. Skrulls! #1Flaw's entry
  71. Uncanny X-Men #376
  72. A + X #16