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Mutants, despite their human nature, feature many distinctive aspects in biology, physiology and genetics from their evolutionary predecessors, but also within them.

Mutation

X-Gene from Wolverine and the X-Men Vol 1 5

X-Gene viewed by Beast and the students of Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters using Pym Particles

Mutant genome

Homo superior (Human mutants) possess the X-Gene (mutant gene,[1] X-Factor,[2] "mutator gene")[3] positioned on the 23rd chromosome[4] (sexual chromosome). Another account mentions a X-Factor chromosome,[5] or chromosomal X-Factor.[6]

On Earth-616 and on other realities, it is sometimes stated that there are mutant genes,[7] X-Factor chromosomes,[8] or even no clear mutant factors but complex structures.[1] Although, it is often clearly stated that the mutant gene truly exists.[9]

The X-Gene activation leads (via transcription and translation) to the production of an exotic protein. This protein produces chemical signals inducing mutations on other genes, ending up with mutant organisms, variously empowered.[4] The activated mutants, once through a mutation[10] or X-Mutation,[11] are told to be "mutated",[12] which is also told of mutants who suffer further mutations through experimentation.[13]

Activation

Aging, puberty, stress, traumas

For most mutants, mutation occurs mostly during puberty[14][15] "in a high proportion or recorded cases",[11] although activation may occur earlier for some individuals, such as to the age of ten.[16] Some mutants activate at birth or at a very early state of their life, or even before birth, whether due to stress,[17] or naturally, for various reasons. Some activated due to fear,[18] hunger and starvation,[19] and emotional traumas.[19]
See the "early activation" section of this page.

In the same way, the Secondary Mutations also appear in time of great stress.[20]

Early activation

Some mutants, among them the "Homo Killcrop" (or Changelings),[21] are activated at birth.[14] Powered beings activated at birth or before puberty are witnessed with surprise or even defiance towards their mutant status.[14][22][23]

Other mutants even activated themselves in the womb and are able to use their powers.[24][25]

See here a list of mutants activated at birth.

Radiations

Solar radiation has been tied to dramatic rises in mutant birth rates.[11]

Direct radiation on humans (latent mutants) has been a factor of mutation activation (on both the X and M Genes):[26] "The Man" and his kind,[27] and Ana Soria.[26]

Jack Winters's mutation after exposure to atomic radiation was completed after further exposure.[28]

The radiation of parents have been often presented for being responsible for mutant birth, like Mandrill,[29] Dragoness,[30] Beast,[31] and Tad Carter.[32]

Beta particles and irradiation may as well affect the mutation, possibly turning unborn children into mutants when their pregnant mothers are irradiated, enhancing mutant powers for active mutants. The only sure effects of it was the Collective formed in Russia during an experiment involving those issues.[33]

Inhibition

Some factors may as well inhibit and prevent the activation of an X-Gene:

  • Rhapsody (Rachel Argosy) was described as a "late bloomer", a case of meningitis slowing her activation until she turned around twenty.[34][35]
  • On Earth-13270, two mutations can't grow and develop alongside each other: Peter Parker had his mutant genes repressed during his adolescence and adulthood, until he lost his mutate powers, and that was when his mutant status emerged.[7]

Effects of mutation

Once activated, the X-Gene leads (via transcription and translation) to the production of an exotic protein. This protein produces chemical signals inducing mutations on other genes, ending up with mutant organisms, variously empowered.[4] The activated mutants, once through a mutation[10] or X-Mutation,[11] are told to be "mutated",[12] which is also told of mutants who suffer further mutations through experimentation.[13]

Variability

Mutations have been shown to be really variable, "can be benign or malignant",[36] from little physical mutations (Jazz's mutation consisted in a simple blue skin pigmentation)[37] to vast psionic[38] or reality manipulation capabilities.[39][40] The physiology of some subjects could also be drastically modified. For example, Beast once met a mutant with brain-bladders.[41]

Although being a rare skill among powered beings,[42] there was surprising number of mutants with precognition.[43]. It was stated that the best telepaths were mutants.[44]

The feral gene (manifesting in animalistic mutations such as the ones of Feral or Sabretooth) is stated to be more common in mutants than other powers such as flight or telepathy.[45] See the list of characters stated to carry the feral gene.

In Earth-17315, it was stated by Charles Xavier that Laura possessing foot claws, instead of only hand claws, was the "obvious result of her gender", mentioning the comportment of lionesses.[46]

Personality/mutation correlations

Doctor Lucius Kleinstein has presented a theory supposing correlation between personality and the mutations among mutants, with an example such as Match's fiery temper and mutation.[47] Similar statements and theories exist about the Gamma Mutates' physical transformations[48] and the Inhumans' Terrigenesis.[49]

According to Kimura, telekinetics are overconfident,[50] though that trait could be simply subjective, or originated from the power (and not the other way around).

Generalities by Type of Mutation

Chameleonic Mutations

According to Hank McCoy, chameleonic mutations like Forge's artificial mutant's always "smell so bad when they bleed, vomit and old eggs."[41]

Effects of inhibitors

According to Storm, "fine talent like psi tend to be affected before gross ones like metamorphosis", reacting to the fact that Emma Frost had lost her telepathy while being able to use her Secondary Mutation to shift to her diamond form, when she entered the range area of an Inhibitor mutant.[41]

Secondary Mutation

The Secondary Mutation is a phenomenon in which an existing mutant gains additional powers, or a change in appearance.

Breeding

Viability on cross-breeding

Wakandan scientists even stated that even if there has never been a proven case of genetic incompatibility between humans and mutants, every mutation was different and some effects could perturb the reproduction process.[51]

Influence of mutations in mutant-mutant reproduction

Consulting data on the the variability within mutants, Arkea was concerned about the species' mating success.[52]

Gene and Alice Hayes stated that because of their mutant genes, they might not be able to conceive (but they managed to, in the person of Molly Hayes).[53]

It was stated by Beast that "X-gene-positive parents with radically altered reproductive physiology" could result in unimaginable offspring, speaking of Beak and Angel's larvae hatching after only a few days of pregnancy.[36]

Emma Frost was told the story of Miss Murphy, who allegedly hatched hundreds of eggs.[54]

Variability of offsprings' powers

Children of members of the Homo superior race, most often have very similar, exact duplicate, or advanced versions of one or both parents' powers (example: Lady Mastermind, Martinique Wyngarde, Wallflower, Polaris, Daken, Nightcrawler, Nocturne, Siryn, Rachel Summers, Ruby Summers, Megan Summers, Pixie, Josiah Guthrie).

Occasionally, the resulting offspring can have radically different powers (examples: Quicksilver, Scarlet Witch, Magma, Genocide and Shinobi Shaw).

Similar processes occur within the Clan Akkaba, where:

Neither of these results are uncommon when crossbreeding between Homo superior and Homo sapiens. Familial power similarities are not only passed from parent to child, but can also be common between siblings in first generation mutant families (examples: Frost Family Tree, Xavier Family Tree, Summers and Grey Family Tree). Though less common, powers can also vary widely within first generation mutants (examples: Guthrie Family Tree and Rasputin Family Tree) just as with parental power inheritance.

It has been stated that second generation mutants could be mightier than their parents, as they possess often the addition of their parents' powers.[57] A similar statement was made by R.C.X. scientist Nicolas about Nightcrawler, but he was at that time confusing mutants and Warpies.[58]

On Earth-1018, it has been stated by Beast (Dr. Henry McCoy) that the second generations aren't in fact mutants despite their mutant DNA.[59] This statement is however apart from the species statements, but only to be related to the term of "mutants". Similarly, Tom Brevoort considered that if Jean Grey's children had the same powers as herself, "they wouldn't be mutants in the truest sense (though they might still possess an X-gene)".[60]

Human offspring from mutant parents

Though a union including at least one mutant parent will often produce a mutant offspring, human offspring can occur: Lydia Nance was a non-mutant born from a mutant father.[61]

In very rare instances, a child of two Homo superior can evolutionarily regress[citation needed] and be born Homo sapiens without an X-Gene, for example: Graydon Creed.

Although she later activated, Molly Hayes was originally tested negative for the X-Gene[62] when both her parents were mutants.[53] (both through experimentation causing similar powers)[63]

On Earth-TRN674, the status of a child born from two mutant parents was unknown until powers would manifest (such a case occurred in the form of Hope, daughter of Lorna Dane and Marcos Diaz).[64]

Factors on mutant conception

Allegedly, the X-Gene can always appear within a human child, but many factors can increase the chances of apparition.[65]

Environmental factors

There was a strong belief that mutants' were born due to the exposure of their parents to mutagenics like chemicals[66][verification needed] and radioactive rays,[66][26][67] like Mandrill,[67] Dragoness,[68] Ana Soria,[26] or Hank McCoy,[31] leading the mutants to be thought of as the Children of the Atom.[citation needed]

The House of M (Earth-58163) scientists stated that the mother's home was to remain at exactly 68 degrees to increase chances of Mutant Birth.[65]

It was also advocated to stay away from organic vegetables and rather consume produces treated with MGH and non-filtered water as various environmental factors (while increasing bacteria and viruses spreading) could had positive effects on the human genome.[65]

Parents' Genetics

Mutant parents

It is stated that if one or both of the parents are mutants, then mutant birth is almost guaranteed.[65]

Mutants from mutate parents

General beliefs and facts

On quite a similar concept, it has been speculated that mutates were more likely to give birth to mutant children,[citation needed] or that the abilities transmitted by their parents made those children mutants because they were born with those abilities.[citation needed] Some mutants' mutations were stated to be "conditioned by [their] parents' altered genetic structure".[69]

It is stated that with one or both meta-human parents, the chances of generating mutant offspring is increased.[65]

Evidences

Mutants born from mutate parents include:

The Purple Children (Purple Man's other children from other women with similar powers and mutations) genetic status is currently unclear but they were stated by Matt Murdock to be the "next evolutionary step",[73] and later said that he made calls to a school that specializes in "Gifted Youngsters".[74]

Counter-evidences

That statement has been proved wrong with the case of Daisy Johnson (Quake) who was at first believed to be a mutant,[75] because she developed powers without direct mutation, or "born with abilities".[76] It was hypothesized that she might "have altered cell structure or brainwave activity",[77] and then confirmed that she doesn't have the specific mutant gene, and that their abilities come ""technically [from a] genetic damage, handed down from [her] jerk of a father".[76] It was later revealed that Quake's powers come from Inhuman genes she inherited from her mother and activated by her father's genes that were mutated by the Hyde Formula.[78]

Opposed to the example of Ben Parker, Spider-Girl (May "Mayday" Parker) (daughter of Spider-Man and Mary Jane Watson on Earth-982) was often thought (by fans) to be a mutant for possessing powers (similar to her father's) at birth,[79][80] but it was stated that she was not a mutant, as she wasn't technically "born with her powers" but "inherited [them] from her father" and was bred true".[81]

Alien parents

Many mutants have alien legacy and it is sometimes stated that this genetic particularity may be involved in the apparition of the X-Gene in babies.[citation needed]

Religion

On House of M, it is believed that a daily prayer to Apocalypse can help.[65]

Powers

Some powers can act as a catalyst or mutagenic, and lead to the birth of mutant children while they are still in the womb.[82]

For instance, a blessing of Lord Magnus is stated to act as a catalyst for children in the womb, due to his constant magnetic field.[65]

In a similar way, the powers of alternate James Jaspers can produce this kind of effects but leading to the birth of Warpies.

Mutant Cross-Breeding

Homo superior have been shown to successfully crossbreed with several other genus Homo species (Homo sapiens, Homo inhumanus, Homo mermanus, etc.), gods (Asgardians) and other humanoid aliens (Shi'ar, Dire Wraiths, etc.).

Cross-breeding with others Humanity Subspecies

Cross-breeding with Aliens

Mutant Genes

Please follow the article on Mutant Genes here.

Particularities

Mutation

See the whole article here (upper in the article).

Earth-1007

On Earth-1007, the X-Factor prevented a sterilization device from working on the mutants, instead reversing their gender.[83]

Blood Types

On Earth-11052, Wolverine's file stated his blood type was "D+Mutated",[84] instead of the classic blood types A, B, AB or O (+ or -).

Immunities

For some reasons, mutants can't acquire AIDS,[85] unlike baseline humans.

They are for untold reasons also immune to possession from sentient bacterial-like early life beings such as That Which Endures,[86] the Harvester's doings[87] or Sublime.[citation needed]

Terrigenesis

The Terrigenesis (the use of Terrigen Mist in order to activate the Inhumans' powers) have variant effects on mutants (powered or not). It was poisonous and caused mutants to develop M-Pox.

For more information, please visit the Terrigenesis page, and the section regarding its effects on mutants.

Earth-13270

On Earth-13270, two mutations can't grow and develop alongside each other: Peter Parker had his mutant genes repressed during his adolescence and adulthood, until he lost his mutate powers, and that was when his mutant status emerged.[7]

References

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  2. What If? Vol 2 #74
  3. Excalibur Vol 3 #7
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Astonishing X-Men Vol 3 #27
  5. X-Force #86
  6. Uncanny X-Men #380
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Marvel Universe 2001 Millennial Visions #1; Spider-Man: Topping the Clone Saga
  8. 8.0 8.1 What If? Vol 2 #88
  9. X-Men Vol 2 #100
  10. 10.0 10.1 New X-Men #122
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 New X-Men #118
  12. 12.0 12.1 Spider-Man and the X-Men #1
  13. 13.0 13.1 X-Force Vol 4 #13
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Marvel Apes #1
  15. Origins of Marvel Comics #1; Wolverine's page
  16. Extraordinary X-Men #17
  17. X-Men: Red #1
  18. Alpha Flight Vol 3 #1
  19. 19.0 19.1 Uncanny X-Force #3
  20. X-Men Phoenix Warsong #1
  21. X-Factor Vol 3 #11
  22. Cable & Deadpool #18
  23. Astonishing X-Men: Xenogenesis #1
  24. New X-Men #121
  25. Generation Hope #7-8
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 Spectacular Spider-Man Vol 2 #19
  27. Journey into Mystery #40
  28. Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #7; Jack Winters's Appendix entry
  29. Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 2 #8
  30. New Mutants #94
  31. 31.0 31.1 X-Men #49
  32. Amazing Adult Fantasy #14
  33. Wolverine: First Class #8
  34. X-Factor #79
  35. X-Men: The 198 Files #1; Rhapsody's entry
  36. 36.0 36.1 New X-Men #141
  37. X-Men: The 198 Files #1; Jazz's entry
  38. X-Men: The 198 Files #1; Cable's entry
  39. X-Men: The 198 Files #1; Richards, Franklin's entry
  40. X-Men: The 198 Files #1; Braddock, Jamie's entry
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Astonishing X-Men Vol 3 #28
  42. Civil War II: Ulysses Infinite Comic #1
  43. Heroic Age: X-Men #1; Blindfold's entry
  44. Avengers Vol 4 #29
  45. Wolverine Vol 2 #312
  46. Logan (film)
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  48. World War Hulk: Gamma Files #1
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  56. 56.0 56.1 X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #3
  57. X-Men: Millennial Visions #2000: "The Offspring"
  58. Excalibur #63
  59. X-Men: Millennial Visions #2000: "Mutants, Mutants, Everywhere!"
  60. Tom Brevoort's statement
  61. X-Men: Gold Vol 2 #22
  62. Runaways #5
  63. Runaways Vol 5 #5
  64. The Gifted (TV series) Season 2 3
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  78. S.H.I.E.L.D. Vol 3 #7
  79. May Parker (Earth-982)'s Marvel Database page, the 27 november 2014
  80. May Parker's Comicvine page
  81. Tom Brevoort's statement on Spider-Girl ("Mayday")'s mutancy
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  86. All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #11
  87. X-Men: Earth's Mutant Heroes #1