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Preface

The History of Jeff Mace spans over 70 years of publications. Below is his complete history. For an abridged overview see the Abridged History of Jeff Mace

World War II

As the Patriot

Origin

Jeff Mace grew up on Yancy Street in New York City. Growing up he would become a reporter for the Daily Bugle, befriending fellow reporter Mary Morgan and photographer Jack Casey. He also took up freelance work for other New York papers. As World War II loomed and the United States involvement seemed imminent the draft was reinstated. Jeff, wishing to fight, was deemed 4-F because he had flat and/or webbed feet. Wishing to be more involved, he became involved in the stories he reported and wrote himself into the stories, earning the ire of publisher Mr. Goodman.

In July of 1941, Mace witnessed Captain America fighting Nazi spies who were posing as dock workers. Unable to stand by the sidelines, Mace got involved again, and Captain America thanked Mace for his help calling him a "true patriot". This inspired Mace, although he was still chastised by his editor for once more getting involved in the story. After talking things out with Jack and Mary, Jeff secretly became inspired to develop the costumed identity of the Patriot to get more involved in fighting evil, while still keeping his journalism "impartial" and allowing him do his part. The Patriot's first adventure found him fighting union busters at the Morgan Shoe Factory -- owned by Mary's father Otis Morgan --, fighting them off and convincing Otis that the needs of his employees and their safety concerns were important. Although none made the connection between Jeff and the Patriot, his co-worker Mary began to suspect.[1]

1941

Jeff Mace was covering a story of striking workers at a munitions plant in Washington D.C. Getting involved as the Patriot, he soon learned that the strike was instigated by a Nazi Fifth Columnists and exposed them and prevented further striking. Returning to New York, Jeff found the city and other cities around America under siege by a militia calling themselves the Yellowshirts who were vying for control of the country. Despite the press being suppressed and martial law ordered by the Yellowshirts, the Patriot went into action liberating the city and paving the way for the Yellowshirts downfall across the country.[2] When a Nazi operative called the Mad Violinist was using his specially made violin to kill American military officials, Mace as the Patriot, tracked the killer down. However, when faced with capture, the Violinist jumped out a window to his death.[3] Later, Jeff, Mary and Jack went to cover the deportation of Nazi operative Lieutenant Heinrich von Betz, hoping to land an exclusive interview with him aboard the prisoner train heading to Canada. However, Von Betz staged a daring escaped attempt by taking over the train. Jeff slipped away and as the Patriot stopped the escape, and forced Von Betz to give the interview before handing it over to Jack Casey to publish.[4]

In August of that year,[1] the Patriot learned of suspicious deaths at the Croxton Tank Factory and decided to go undercover to learn the truth. There he found a Nazi plan to sabotage the factory and crushed it as the Patriot.[5] Soon after, the Patriot invited by the Human Torch to attend a farewell party of his friend Casey (no apparent relation to Jack Casey) who was assigned as a war correspondent. During this party the Patriot met fellow heroes Toro, and the Angel. Later that day when the Sub-Mariner launched a invasion of the surface world, the Patriot met with President Roosevelt and convinced him that America should get involved in the conflict.[6] Returning to New York City, the Patriot assisted the flood ravaged citizens alongside such heroes as the Phantom Reporter, Mister E, Electro, Hurricane and Fiery Mask until the Human Torch and Captain America could bring Namor down.[7]

In September of that year[1] Jeff and Mary went to do a report on the Anti-Nazi play "Swastikas Over Europe" and were horrified when the lead actor was murdered on stage. Slipping away to become the Patriot, Jeff caught the killers: Nazi operatives hired to shut down the musical that made the Nazis look bad.[8] Because Jeff was busy as the Patriot, Mary was able to scoop him on the story.[1] While out joyriding in a plane as the Patriot, Jeff spotted a Nazi fighter plane over American soil and battled it. Shooting it down, he found that the pilot was a top ranking Nazi operative named Herr Huss who claimed that he was seeking asylum in the United States and wished to share Nazi secrets with the military. Believing Huss, the Patriot escorted Huss to the hope of millionaire John Garett. However, the Patriot soon learned that Huss was seeking to trick American officials and was he attempted to place a call to warn Jack Casey, he was shot.[9] Because the bullet only creased his brow, the Patriot survived, and confronted Huss and Garrett's butler, learning that they had disposed of the arriving Jack. When the butler was shot by Huss, Huss committed suicide rather than face capture. The Patriot then rescued Jack who had been left to die in the basement behind a recently erected brick wall.[10] On their next assignment, Jeff, Jack and Mary were going to cover the arrival of Lieutenant Curtis who had just returned from the Philippines with vital information about the Imperial Japanese attempt to take over the region. When Curtis was attacked by Philippino assassin Ginaldo, Jeff changed into the Patriot to battle him.[11] The Patriot defeated Ginaldo in battle, and followed his bloody trail back to the Japanese spy who hired him. During the battle, Ginaldo accidentally slew his employer and was brought to justice by the Patriot.[12]

In November of that year,[1] Jeff, Jack and Mary were sent to cover the court trial of green skinned spy Green-Faced Man. When Reibel escaped his trial, Jeff changed into the Patriot once more and battle Reibel on the roof of the court house. The battle ended when Reibel was knocked off a statue of the Scales of Justice to his death.[13]

By December, the United States had entered into World War II following the attacks on Pearl Harbour , Jeff and his colleagues listened to the radio reports on the attack and the Japanese invasions of Hong Kong, Guam, the Philippines and Wake Island.[1]

1942

In January of 1942, Jeff was at a farewell party being thrown for Jack Casey, who had just been drafted into the Navy. While everyone was celebrating, Jeff became more introspective, feeling that he still had plenty more to do.[1]

The Patriot continued to fight Nazi spies that were working to destabilize the United States.[14] He stopped Nazi spies from tricking shipbuilders into going on strike,[15] discovered Nazi scientist Dr. Strasser committing gruesome experiments on military officials and killed him,[16] stopped Nazi spies from using super-fast insects as bullets to turn American war games into real battles,[17] and destroyed the Japanese Iron Clawed Monster before it could sink more American ships.[18]

In June,[1] when the Invaders were brainwashed by the Red Skull, Bucky began gathering other wartime heroes to help free his friend. The first hero that Bucky sought out was the Patriot, who also began appearing on radio to boost support for the war effort, and try to drive the sales of War Bonds. Explaining his plight, the Patriot agreed to assist Bucky in gathering more heroes. Together they gathered the Red Raven, Thin Man, Whizzer, Miss America, and Blue Diamond. Together they formed the Liberty Legion.[19] The Patriot acted as the teams leader as they learned to work together against Nazi forces. This eventually earned the ire of the Red Skull who then sent the enthralled Invaders to destroy various American national monuments. The Patriot and Miss America were dispatched to Philadelphia to protect Liberty Hall from Captain America. The duo easily stopped Captain America, however the enslaved hero managed to escape.[20] The Red Skull then called the Liberty Legion to battle the enslaved Invaders at Yankees Stadium. There the Patriot led the Liberty Legion to victory, defeating the Red Skull and freeing the Invaders from his control. While the Invaders returned to England to help fight the war, the Legion vowed to remain together to defend America.[21] During this time, the Patriot began to question his worth on the team, being the only normal human in the group, this was further compounded when he made a fool of himself during a press conference after a botched assassination attempt on the Thin Man. However, the other members of the Legion convinced the Patriot to continue his leadership role as the public already saw him in that position.[1]

The Patriot led the Liberty Legion in defending New York City from a Nazi air raid led by Sky Shark where they encountered a the time travelling Thing. After stopping the Sky Shark, the Legion members dismissed the Thing's mission to recover a lost cylinder of Vibranium as science fiction before being called off to various secret government facilities where new weapons were being made. The Patriot and Thin Man rushed to the farm house of an American scientist who had just recently developed a new gyroscope device. They arrived too late to pprevent Skyshark from gunning the scientist down. When Sky Shark fled the scene, Thin Man and Patriot could not stop him. Even without the gyroscope device, the Nazi's scientist Brain Drain managed to launch his new Swastika shaped air dreadnought.[22] The Patriot led the Legion to the site of the attack where they found the Thing fighting alone against Master Man, U-Man, Sky Shark, and Brain Drain. Incapacitating the craft, the Legion captured the Nazis, except for Brain Drain who managed to escape. With the Vibranium recovered, the Thing returned to his own time.[23]

The Liberty Legion next came to the aid of their teammate Miss America who was attempting to prevent Polish refugee Professor Schneider from being captured by Iron Cross. However the entire team except the Whizzer was captured who recruited the Invaders to assist in their rescue.[24] The Patriot and the others were taken aboard a Nazi U-Boat that was soon attacked by the Invaders. When the Sub-Mariner damaged the sub causing it to take on water, Iron Cross took Schneider and left the Legion members to drown.[25] The Invaders then rescued the Liberty Legion, and the two groups rescued Schneider and sent Iron Cross falling into the ocean, his armour incapacitated.[26] Later, the Patriot was present during a Liberty Legion meeting when the Whizzer and Miss America took a brief leave of absence to help the Invaders.[27]

The Patriot then resumed his solo adventuring, having his first foray into the war effort when he learned that a prisoner exchange between the Japanese and the United States was a trap as the Japanese intended to sink the American vessel. Sneaking aboard the Japanese vessel and posing as the dead Japanese man that was reclaimed. Then, as the Patriot, Jeff is smuggled into Japan where he stole an aircraft and learning the location of the Japanese sub, sunk it before it could destroy its intended target.[28] Reunited with Jack, Jeff and Mary travel to Australia to report on Japanese attacks in the area. Along the way they are caught in a strange beam and made prisoner of a Japanese scientist who had invented an evolution ray. Jeff breaks free from his bonds and changes into the Patriot, killing the Japanese scientist before he could devolve Jack into a lizard. The Patriot then used the device to turn the scientists army of Shaggy Men back into the lizard forms they were evolved from[29]

Back in the United States, the trio then interview the Great Astro, who was able to predict Nazi attacks on American ships. Learning that the Great Astro was really a Nazi spy, they were all captured, and Jeff once more broke free and changed into the Patriot to stop the Great Astro and free his friends.[30] Assigned to cover a story in New Guinea, the trio were captured by Nazi operative Colonel Zinzer who had convinced the local natives to work for him. The Patriot one more broke free and convinced the natives to turn against Zinzer, and attack arriving Japanese forces.[31] Returning home, Jeff and Mary were sent to write a report on a local USO show, when the funds raised for the troops were stolen by thieves. Jeff then slipped away to change into the Patriot and recover the money, raising Mary's suspicions even more.[32] Returning to Australia, and reunited with Jack once more, Jeff and Mary accompany a delegate on his return trip to India. However, they soon find that the "delegate" is really a Japanese spy who then captured them. Jeff, once more turning into the Patriot, freed his friends and captured the spy and turned him over to Allied Forces in Australia.[33]

1943

Returning home to the United States, Jeff soon began hearing reports of Nazi prisoners of war escaping from prisoner camps in Canada and attempting to smuggle themselves into the United States to commit acts of espionage. The Patriot travels to Canada and with the help of the Canadian military poses as a captured Nazi and learns that the escapes are being facilitated by Lieutenant Karl Mueller. Earning Mueller's trust, Jeff then staged his own escape, finding that the operations ending point is New York City, and quickly shuts it down.[34] Back on the entertainment beat, Jeff and Mary see a performance by professional drummer Drums Toggins. Recognizing Toggins' drum beats as Morse Code and realizing that he is communicating government secrets, Jeff slipped away and captured Toggins and his fellow spies as the Patriot.[35] With Jack back in town, the trio of reporters come to the aid of reformed criminal "Thick Lips" Scarbo, who was being blackmailed into using his criminal expertise to help out Nazi spies. As the Patriot, Jeff takes down the spies and frees Scarbo's son from their clutches, allowing Scarbo to continue to go straight.[36] The trio next joined a manhunt for Nazi spies who managed to escape capture after smuggling themselves into the country. Tracking them to a nearby butcher shop, Jeff, Jack and Mary were all captured and thrown in freezers. Jeff, as the Patriot, broke free and then rounded up the spies before once more rescuing his friends.[37]

When Celia Tang, a wealthy heiress, seemingly commits suicide Jeff as the Patriot investigates and learns that Tang was actually driven to it by her father who had kept Celia's mother locked away until Celia was dead so he could inherit the family fortune for himself.[38] Soon after, a rash of juvenile delinquency in the city prompts Jeff to investigate as the Patriot, exposing the prime instigator to be Nazi spy Von Gukk who the Patriot captures, teaching the children the errors of their ways in the process.[39] After a brief absence from crime fighting, Jeff resumed his activities as the Patriot when reporting on the murder of millionaire Martin Hughes. He chases down the killer, Black Mamba and revealing him to be Hughes' butler.[40]

In December of 1943, Mary was apparently captured by Nazi scientist Dr. Hanz Groitzig to test new formulas on. Witnessing her kidnapping, Jeff went after her as the Patriot and came to her rescue. He arrived too late to stop Groitzig and his assistant from injecting the formula into Mary, but captured them.[41] Mary, having gained telescopic vision and enhanced hearing finally confirmed her suspicions that Jeff Mace was really the Patriot. Developing the costumed identity of Miss Patriot, Mary then attempted to convince Jeff to let her be his sidekick. Still struggling to juggle his career, crime fighting persona, and leadership of the Liberty Legion, as well as still having doubts of his abilities, Jeff turned her down. However, he convinced Mary to take up crime fighting suggesting that they team-up some time. However, as Mary agreed and left, Jeff began to wonder if Mary was really kidnapped against he will.[1]

As 1943 came to a close, time displaced American soldier Paul Anselm returned from the future with the Cosmic Cube to restore the lives of his friends who died in battle. The Cube ended up in the hands of the Red Skull, who used it to reshape reality so that the Nazis ruled the Earth, killing the majority of Earth's wartime heroes, including Jeff.[42] However, the remaining Invaders, along with time the time travelling New Avengers and Might Avengers clashed with the Skull. During the fight, Anselm recovered the Cube and used it to resurrect the Patriot and the other slain heroes who then all swarmed the Red Skull. Following the Skull's defeat, reality was restored to normal, and Jeff's memories of events were erased.[43]

1944

The Patriot was less active in 1944, likely due to his lack of confidence as a super-hero due to his lack of super-human abilities.[44] The Patriot was next seen in Washington D.C., where he stopped Nazi spies from stealing plans for a new experimental submarine[45] and later thwarted Nazi spies from attempting to assassinate President Roosevelt.[46]

Travelling to San Francisco with Mary to write a report on the arrival of Soong May-Ling, the Chinese first lady, they witnessed her capture at the hands of Japanese spies. Jeff as the Patriot tracked down the spies hideout and saved May-Ling before relations between the United States and China could sour[47][48]. The Patriot next rescued American counter espionage agent John Faracry from Nazi spies,[49] rescued Mary Morgan from the top of the Statue of Liberty when she was held hostage by an escaped Nazi prisoner of war,[50] and cleared an innocent woman's name of murder revealing the killer to really be her insane uncle.[51] Later, learning that a local prison is now under the control of Nazi spies, Jeff had himself placed in the prison, posing as a prisoner and with the assistance of some of the patriotic prisoners, helped foil the Nazis plans.[52]

1945

In 1945, the Patriot exposed a Nazi plot to replace legitimate war bonds with counterfeits and reported it to the FBI,[53] puts a stop to a brilliant safe cracker calling himself the Cracksmith[54] and took down criminal arsonist Dr. Hades and his fire cult.[55]

In April of that year, the Patriot was once more active with the Liberty Legion, leading the team in defending San Francisco from an army of Lava Men who were being manipulated by Japanese spies. After the battle, Miss America pointed out to the group that with the Axis powers on the retreat they do not have the resources to continue subversive activity in the United States, then begins asking her teammates what they plan on doing when the war is over. When Miss America mentions some of the Liberty Legion members joining up with the Invaders, the Patriot expresses an interest in doing so as well. Miss America then pulled the Patriot aside and told that with Captain America leading the Invaders, having the Patriot on the team would be confusing. She then suggested that the remaining Liberty members take up different segments of the United States, assigning the Patriot the northeast and suggesting that he team-up and work with Miss Patriot. Before Jeff could answer, their conversation was interrupted by the return of the Whizzer who tells them that he and Miss America were invited into the Invaders. More depressed than ever, the Patriot congratulates them.[1] The Liberty Legion dissolved soon afterword.

Jeff was dispatched to Europe for his paper to cover a story about a new Allied rocket test. As the Patriot he foiled Nazis who attempted to memorize the plans to use them in their war effort.[56] Later that month the Patriot got to work with Captain America after all when he and Spirit of '76 on a covert mission into Berlin to stop the Red Skull from fleeing with a lock box apparently containing Hitler's final doomsday weapon. Arriving amid bombings, they also found Russian operative Red Guardian on the same mission. Despite the differences in their political ideologies, the four men chased after the Red Skull, clashing with Nazi forces. While the Patriot, Spirit of '76 and Red Guardian kept Nazi soldiers at bay, Captain America battled with the Red Skull. The battle ended when an Allied bombing caused the Skull's bunker to collapse on him seemingly burying the Nazi alive.[57] He also briefly worked with the military prior to a mission to recover the Spear of Destiny from the Nazis.[58]

Returning to the United States, the Patriot investigated the disappearance of secret files from the War Department in Washington D.C., and discovered Nazi spies who were secretly operating from a hidden room beneath the complex.[59] The Patriot also solved the murder of fraudulent stock broker Thomas Jenkins,[60] and rounded up a gang of crooks who killed their wealthy victims with a poison triggered puzzles[61][62].

Post War

1946

As the Patriot

1946 brought about the end of Jeff Mace's career as the Patriot[63]. With the aid of photographer Birdie Hart, the Patriot helped solve a series of arsons committed by mobster Dusty Reagan[64][65]. The hero also helped prevent old time crook Larceny Andy stay away from crime and find a legitimate job when he faced life in prison if convicted of another crime.[66] When trying to collect donations from the wealthy for a charity to benefit needy children, the Patriot convinces millionaire practical joker Bandy Cole to donate after the hero saves his party goers from being robbed.[67] The Patriot also stopped a group of international spies from disrupting diplomatic relations in Washington D.C.[68]

In July 1946, Jeff travelled to Boston to cover the 11th District Congressional Race. There he crossed paths with the All-Winners Squad (a team consisting of former members of the Invaders and the Liberty Legion). As the Patriot, Jeff assisted the group in trying to stop the android Adam II from assassinating presidential hopeful John F. Kennedy. During the course of the battle, Captain America (the mantle now being carried by William Nasland) was killed fighting Adam II.[69] The Patriot brought Captain America back to Namor's ship to try and give him medical attention, but William died on the operating table, telling Jeff only his name.[1] Taking Captain America's costume and shield, Jeff then went into action helping the All-Winners Squad destroy Adam II and save Kennedy's life.[69] Mace was taken into government custody and questioned about his involvement in the battle, and thanks to some coaxing by Betty Ross, Jeff was offered to officially take the place of Captain America. Jeff, was unwilling to be replace Captain America, he agreed to carry his name and fight for what the hero stood for.[1]

As Captain America

Under his new identity, Jeff was paired up with Fred Davis Jr. who had taken over the role of Bucky in 1944. Jeff was registered as a teacher at the Lee School with Fred becoming a student. Their earliest solo adventures included battling a group of crooks who sold perfume bottles that would light on fire, a Modern Day Robin Hood, and deranged stage magician Amazo.[70]

Jeff was also uneasily thrust into the role of leader of the All-Winners Squad, much to the chagrin of the Sub-Mariner. The first threat they faced together came from the Future Man a time traveller from the year 1,000,000 AD And his love Madame Death. They created a series of global threats forcing the heroes to split up and tackle each threat individually. Captain America and Bucky travelled to Europe where they prevented the Future Man and Madame Death from unleashing the powerful Green Plague over the area forcing the villains to retreat. The All-Winners then regrouped and attacked Future Man's time ship.[71] During the course of the fight, Cap was off throwing his shield hitting the time controls of Future Man's ship causing it to overload. The All-Winners fled the ship while Future Man and Madame Death were sent hurtling far into the distant past. When Captain America was pressured by the press to give details, Miss America covered for him and instigated rumours that there was a romance between the two in order to boost the All-Winner's PR. Still uncomfortable in his role as Captain America, Jeff continued to practice honing his skills. Later, the All-Winner's base was destroyed in an attack by apparent zombies of death US soldiers who died during World War II. During the fight, Jeff and Fred were confronted by apparent zombies of their predecessors. "Steve Rogers" told Jeff that he could come back to life if Jeff sacrificed his life. Jeff almost gave in when the group realized it was really a trick devised by Madame Death who had returned from the past following the death of Future Man. With renewed confidence, Jeff and his fellow team mates battled Madame Death until she died in battle. With their base destroyed, Jeff suggested that the team take up residence in the Baxter Building.[72]

In September 1946, Captain America led the All-Winners Squad in a battle against Russian super agents in England, clashing with the Red Guardian while his team mates kept atomic scientist Klaus Fusch safe. The battle ended with the Russians fleeing, but not before the Red Guardian deduced that the Captain America he fought was not the original. After returning home, Jeff met with Betty Ross and had her tell him who the original Captain America was and what happened to him in 1944. After being told about Steve Rogers, Jeff was visited by Miss Patriot. She had initially come to tell Jeff that their friend Jack Casey had died, however after having a few too many drinks while they were catching up, Mary upset Jeff by asking to be his new Bucky and Jeff told her to leave. Later, Jeff was told about Jack by Betty, and when he wanted to go as Captain America, Betty refused to allow him to do so due to the negative publicity Jack's homosexuality would cause to Captain America's reputation. Jeff, instead went to the funeral in his old Patriot unifrom, and delivered a eulogy which Mary transcribed for the newspaper. Following the eulogy's publication, there was a huge public backlash against the Patriot. Jeff, figuring the Patriot was now dead then had the Human Torch burn his old uniform. Although his other team mates were supportive of his decisions, Namor once more chastised Jeff for ruining the Patriot's legacy. Angry, Jeff decked the Sub-Mariner in the face, breaking his hand in the process.[73]

1947

As 1947 began, Jeff and Fred continued working together as Captain America, and using their cover as teacher and student as the Lee School. Early on that year they came to the assistance of Doris Ford in searching for her uncles fortune hidden in an Egyptian inspired crypt, clashing with the Howling Mummy, who was really Doris' cousin.[74] Next they apprehended the suction-cupped jewel thief called the Human Fly, exposed the life insurance fraud scheme of Rocky Rhodes and his girl Broadway Lil Carter, and stopping the mobster known as Hatchetface from forcing young boxer Tommy Kelly from throwing his fight against Fred Davis.[75] Later, Cap and Bucky rejoined the All-Winners Squad on orders by the president to protect a new atom bomb called "Rosebud" being developed in Las Vegas. The team were unable to stop a mobster named Dutch from stealing the bomb, as Dutch was assisted by the time travelling She-Hulk and Wanda Mason.[76] Afterword, he and the All-Winners Squad were on a mission with the Union Jack and Destroyer, an encounter that inspired the two British heroes to later form the V-Battalion.[77] In February of that year, Cap and Bucky put a stop to a supposed masked hero calling himself the Protector who was in reality the leader of a gang and protection racket.[73]

Soon after, Captain America and Bucky clashed with an unknown criminal posing as the Red Skull who had freed a number of death row inmates and began stealing medical supplies. During the clash, Captain America and this new Red Skull fought atop a dam, where the Skull fell to his death, ending his short career. Captain America later found himself defending an actress named Yvonne who was being targeted by a criminal named the Bullfrog alone, as Bucky was off trying to obtain frog legs to impress the supposedly French actress. While apprehending the Bullfrog, Cap saved Fred from being drowned by the villain as well and they both learned that Yvonne was really from Brookyln, not France, much to Fred's dismay. Later, Fred's autograph book was stolen by a criminal calling himself Laughing Boy who used the autographs to forge checks. With the aid of Betsy Ross, Captain America and Bucky put a stop to Laughing Boy, preventing him from killing actress Susan Dane[78][79]. Once more working with Betsy Ross, Cap and Bucky shut down the Crime Club which was being run by a criminal calling himself the Black Baron. They also stopped Signor Zagana and his gypsy troupe from robbing the Thorndyke Ball, and stopped the Mad Musician from getting revenge against his old music instructor Professor Carlotti.[80] After being struck with amnesia, Captain America found himself framed for the murder of James Winthorp. Bailed out by Bucky, Cap was forced to resume his civilian guise of Jeff Mace while Bucky attempted to clear Cap's name. The pair revealed that Winthrop was really murdered by Crystal Green, and Jeff's memory was restored from a blow to the head while apprehending Green and her gang.[81]

Later, Captain America and Bucky came to the aid of the Lee School, first by preventing Rip Van Winkle from stealing items up for sale at a charity auction for the school, then later they recovered a stolen shipment of lumber intended for building a new wing to the Lee School that was stolen by the criminal known as Mr. Polly.[82] When one of Jeff's friend is murdered by gambling racketeer Deuce Wilde, Jeff avenged his death as Captain America by shutting down Wilde's operation. During his battle with Wilde, the criminal fell off a roof and fell to his death.[83] By August Captain America and the All-Winners Squad defended America from Communist agents disguised as Martians.[73] Following this, Captain America and Bucky also captured notorious jewel thief Sparkles Labelle, and crooked nightclub owner King Leer. After, Captain America was later the guest of honour at the state fair, where he and Bucky helped protect "City of the Future" models that were on display there when they were threatened by a crook calling himself the Acrobat.[84] Next, in his capacity as a school teacher, Jeff accompanied a class field trip to a nearby planetarium. When the charity money from a pay-telescope was stolen by a petty crook calling himself the Oracle, Captain America and Bucky stopped him and his gang.[85] Later, Captain America and Bucky were invited down to New Orleans to be the guests of honour in a Mardi Gras parade. The parade turned tragic when the Mardi Gras Queen is poisoned during the parade. Captain America and Bucky quickly deduce her lover Cesear had done it in order to steal an expensive jewel necklace.[86]

In December, Captain America and Bucky rescued a number of kidnapped children from the clutches of the diabolical Dr. Satan.[73]

1948

1948 started off like previous years for Jeff Mace and Fred Davis, first fighting domestic crime. In New Orleans, they prevented the theft of a necklace that was part of a Mardi Gras parade.[86] Captain America then briefly called off his partnership with Bucky while romancing a woman named Grace, who was the head of a Crime Syndicate. This was all a cover to keep Bucky safe while Cap shut the syndicate down. After the syndicate was busted the two were reunited. Jeff and Fred soon came to the aid of one of their students at the Lee School as Captain America and Bucky when she was terrorized by the Matador who sought to steal the Cortez Crown. They also stopped the joke inspired crime spree of the Jester.[87] The pair next investigated the so-called Lightning Cult whose leaders claimed to be the reincarnation of the Olympian gods Zeus and Jove. Cap and Bucky exposed them as two arsonist who used the cult to commit their crimes.[88] In one of their more mundane adventures, Captain America and Bucky captured mobster Cheeks Chadwick who was forcing Lee School teacher Otto Drumm to pose as the criminal when a case of the Mumps caused the teacher to resemble the crook.[89] Following this, Captain America and the All-Winners Squad participated in an adventure with Union Jack and the Destroyer, inspiring the pair to form the V-Battalion.[90] Back in the United States, Cap and Bucky stopped another caper out of the Lee School, this time an attempted painting theft by the Masked Cavalier.[91]

Tragedy soon struck Captain America and Bucky in an incident that spelled the end of their partnership. In April 1948 the All-Winners Squad had moved into their new headquarters located within the Baxter Building and celebrated Cap's birthday. Later, while on patrol, Captain America and Bucky attempted to stop a diamond robbery, which ended with Bucky being shot and left for dead by the thieves. Cap detected the scent of lavender perfume and immediately believed that the shooter was his old friend Mary Morgan, getting revenge on Cap for refusing her to be his sidekick.[73] However, after confronting Mary about her possibly involvement in Bucky's shooting, he learned that the shooter was really a criminal named Lavender an anti-Semite who struck out against Jewish businesses after her family business was ruined when their Nazi connections were brought to light after the war. Captain America tracked Lavender down and nearly beat her to death if not for the intervention of Betty Ross, who had come to Cap's aid in the costumed identity of Golden Girl and convinced him to stand down and have Lavender brought to justice. Following Lavender's defeat, Cap learned that Bucky would pull through, but his young sidekick needed time to heal, and so he took Golden Girl on as his new partner and then quit the All-Winners Squad to find his own way. Jeff attempted to start a romance with Betty, but she stopped him, but the pair continued to act as partners, Cap unaware that Betty was assigned to monitor Cap due to his connection to Mary Morgan, who had fled the country after last being seen with Communist operatives.[92] A separate account of Bucky's shooting has been told, but this has been identified as a fictional tale based on the real events cited above.[91]

In their first recorded adventure together, Captain America and Golden Girl found themselves involved in aiding Mr. Zrr liberate his home world of Dimension Zee that had inadvertently become a safe haven for criminals Denton Smith and Cecil Babylon.[93] Later, they came to the aid of young Joey Milton whose family was terrorized by a pack of jewels thieves,[94] and shortly thereafter Cap stepped in the boxing ring in the place of musician Scotti Warren and prevented him from being maimed by crooked boxer Killer Casey.[93] Captain America soon went on a solo mission up north and upon his return crashed his plane. He was recovered and revived by the Teeny-Weeny People and brought to their hidden kingdom. There he stopped the machinations of the evil Prime Minister Grinko's bid to replace King Tiny and then returned to the United States promising never to tell the location of their hidden land.[95] Captain America and Golden Girl next stopped Horatio and his Dolls (really midgets in disguise) from stealing a ruby doll house.[96] Taking some time off for fishing in the Bahamas, Cap was forced by a storm to the island refuge of escaped murderer John Barton, who told Cap how he fled the United States to avoid a facing justice for murdering his fiancée, the guilt racked man soon died of a heart attack before the storm cleared.[95]

Returning to the States, Captain America and Golden Girl then came to the aid of war veteran Jerry Malcom who believed he was responsible for the death of his war buddy Chester Berry during the war, and as psychosomatic response could not walk. The pair tracked down Chester, who was alive and well, and convinced Jerry that he was the genuine article and cured him of his affliction.[97] When the Earth was terrorized by Jovians from the planet Jupiter with a Ray of Madness, Captain America teamed up with the Human Torch and his new partner Sun Girl in planning a mission that saw the Torch carry out the seemingly impossible task of flying to Jupiter and destroying the weapon. When the Torch returned to Earth his flame powers sputtered out and Cap saved the Torch from a fatal fall from the sky.[98] Afterword, Captain America encouraged his musician friend Vincent Varl to pursue a career in Jazz music even though his attempts where being thwarted by an Imp that lived in his Amati violin.[99]

1949

With the Cold War against Russia in full swing, Jeff Mace and Betsy soon found themselves attending a lecture by Professor Kluto, who claimed that the only way to create world peace was to unite the countries of the world with an invasion from another world. Soon Kluto activated a device that drew the planet Mars to Earth. Earth was soon invaded by an army of so-called Martians led by Warlord Oog. As Captain America, Jeff assisted Golden Girl in fighting off the invasion. Captured by Oog, Cap tricked him into brining them to Professor Kluto's lab where he reversed the device sending Mars back to it's original location and slaying Oog in the process. Unable to eat Earth foods, the remaining Martians retreated to die in space than face starvation on Earth.[100] After this botched invasion Jeff found himself and Golden Girl delegated to dealing with local criminals and other mundane tasks, such as speaking to school children, this slowly started to disenfranchise Jeff regarding his role as Captain America.[101]

While attending a radio quiz show, Captain America met Ollie Olophant who, thanks to a tiny encyclopaedia, had a vast knowledge of information. Cap followed Ollie's rise to fame, and was happy to see Ollie give it up to live a simple life with his girlfriend.[100] In his capacity as a school teacher at the Lee School, Jeff became concerned with the performances of his students Bob Wills and Jessica Hermann. Jeff soon learned that Bob was in love with Jessica, while Jessica was spending time with local hood Lefty Spence. Lefty implicates Jessica in a robbery, leading to Jeff getting involved as Captain America. However, before Cap can arrest Lefty, a costume mask that Lefty took from Jessica's father (A costume maker) contracted around his neck and suffocated him to death.[102]

By this time, Fred had mostly recovered from his gunshot wound and Jeff went to pick him up at the hospital. As they were leaving they were ambushed and captured by the Trickster a criminal who properly deduced Fred's secret identity and sought to get at Captain America. Unaware that Jeff was really Captain America, the Trickster let him loose to go and place a message in the newspaper demanding that Captain America meet his challenge. Jeff instead changed into Cap and crashed in on the Trickster and his men, freeing Fred who changed into Bucky and helped Cap capture the Trickster and his men and turn them over to the authorities.[103] Despite this brief return, Fred was in no condition to continue as Cap's sidekick and retired from his position, and began working for the government.[101] In another mundane adventure, Captain America got involved in the love life of Lee School scientist Jonathan Presto who was working for Professor Teague. Teague was developing a new telescope and disapproved of Presto's relationship with his ward Helen Bryant. Teague purposely blinded Presto to prevent their romance from advancing further. When Presto learned the truth, Cap was too late to prevent him from knocking Teague beneath the unfiltered telescope frying Teague's brain in the process.[103] After that, Cap battled Tahn the Conqueror.[104]

Reunited with Golden Girl, Captain America joined the New York City Police Department and National Guard in defending New York City from a revived Tyrannosaurus Rex that was unwittingly unleashed on the city by a pair of enterprising criminals. The Tyrannosaur was soon mortally wounded and Cap and Golden Girl followed it back to it's birthplace in a Utah tar pit to watch it die.[105] Going solo again, Captain America captured Lem Snipe, a former Nazi spy who was released from prison, who was captured by his predecessor Steve Rogers.[106] The pair also assisted Professor Sigmund Adler in curing criminal John Dolan. Resuming his solo activities Cap also battled the Trickster one again.[107] Cap and Golden Girl next investigated the disappearance of diamond miner Peter Blake with the aid of amateur detective Andy Opp, capturing Pete's killer, John Harrington.[108]

Captain America then began working with inventor Alan Tremont who was developing a viewing device that allowed glimpses of the future. When Alan's sister Nanette was kidnapped by Alan's former colleague Wolf Turber, they followed after him. They were soon met by San a time traveller from the year 2548 of Earth-TRN215. San took Alan and Cap aboard his time machine as they followed Wolf Turb in his failed attempts to conquer the world in the years 1780, and 1649 of Earth-616. Travelling to the year 3350 of Earth-TRN215, San was killed and Captain America captured by Wolf Turb who brought Cap and Nanette even further into the future, to the year 200,000 AD. There Cap broke free and attacked Turb, revealing him to be a robot by destroying Turb's mechanized brain. Cap and Nanette soon returned to their own era and destroyed the time machine. Working with Golden Girl once more, Captain America investigated the Dream Master an individual who promised restful sleep for those who needed it. Instead, the pair found that the Dream Master was torturing his customers with nightmares and locked them into a dungeon. Cap and Golden Girl defeated the Dream Master and turned him over to the authorities.[109]

Jeff soon found himself involved in a supernatural affair, when a Red Skull impostor (likely the one he fought in 1947) tricked Satan into bringing Captain America to Hell by writing Jeff's name into the book of the damned. Realizing the trick, Satan offered the pair the chance to return to the world of the living by fighting to the "death". The pair fought it out and eventually Captain America bested the Red Skull, banishing him for all eternity to Hell. Jeff was returned to the mortal world where he woke up initially believing the encounter to be a dream, until he found a swatch of the Red Skull's shirt in his hand that was torn off during the fight.[110]

1950

By February 1940, Captain America and Golden Girl had been reduced to basic crime fighting under orders of the United States government. Cap longed to fight overseas with the soldiers in the Korean War much like his predecessors did during World War II, but orders prevented Jeff from being deployed. After another mission with the All-Winners Squad (their last) and a few other capers with Golden Girl, Jeff soon learned that Golden Girl was being reassigned by Skinner. Jeff was delighted to find that he was being reunited with Fred, who was assigned by the government to be Captain America's liaison.

Not happy with his inactivity, Captain America confronted agent Skinner and demanded to do more. However, with the Communist witch hunts of the McCarthy Era in full swing, the United States government was keeping a close reign on Captain America, and Skinner had developed a deep suspicion of Cap when considering his Russian-Jewish ancestry and his previous interactions with Mary Morgan.

In June of 1950, Mace was sent to a New York elementary school to give a speech. There he learned about a missing boy and decided to get involved in rescuing him, even though it was against his orders. Following eye witness reports of UFO's sighted at the local graveyard, Cap went there to investigate. Instead of aliens he stumbled upon a secret government operation called Vanguard and rescued the boy. Learning of the operation by Fred, Cap soon found himself in a unrecorded disciplinary meeting with Skinner. Having realized that this was a means to get him shipped off to Korea while taking a position with Vanguard, Cap recorded their conversation and used it to force Skinner to retire him as Captain America and reunite him with Betsy Ross, who was also discharged from the FBI.

Unrestrained by government red tap and constant danger, Jeff and Betsy's romance bloomed and they moved to the Queens neighborhood of Glendale, New York. There Jeff opened up the Glendale Gazette and resumed his career as a newspaper reporter. Often, Jeff and Betsy would look after her young nephew Thaddeus. After settling in, Jeff and Betsy began starting their own family and faded from the public eye.[101]

Modern Era

Illness and Death

Legacy

References

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