The man known as Ivan the Sculptor was a starving artist. In 1941 he was commissioned by the city to make some sculptures, but they were ultimately rejected. In order to get revenge, Ivan hatched a complicated plot to get back at the men who rejected his work. He first gathered a group of loyal voodoo practitioners who worshipped a god called Os-Os-Me-Lim and convinced them that he had the magical power to make people ill and die by sculpting them. However, he simply had his loyal followers break into their homes and replace the light bulbs in their lamps with bulbs that emitted "Antinic Rays" which really caused the illnesses and death. Although Ivan was accused of the murders, no evidence could be found in court and he there was an acquittal of his crimes.

By 1946, Ivan had taken up the lucrative business of threatening the lives of wealthy men, using these same methods to make them ill. For the most part they would pay his ransoms before the illnesses got terminal. When he targeted Mr. Drew, his daughter went to the police, attracting the attention of Captain America and Bucky in the process. They went to Ivan's studio to confront him with the situation, but he dismissed them. With no evidence to arrest Ivan, they were forced to leave.

Ivan then sent some of his followers to check on Mr. Drew, leading to a clash with Captain America and Bucky. Cap, believing that the illnesses were psychological, decided to go back to Ivan's studio and he and Bucky were soon captured. Tied up, they watched in horror as Ivan was finishing a bust of Captain America which was making the hero sick. Bucky, breaking free, managed to free Cap and the duo easily beat Ivan and his men. With Ivan captured, he revealed the full scope of his scheme and was taken away.

His subsequent fate is unknown.


Ivan used special light bulbs that emitted "Antinic Rays" that caused illness, hallucinations and eventually death.

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