Earth-199999 has many of the features of our reality: many of the same countries, personalities, and historical events. However, it also contains many fictional additions that have reshaped the world historically and developmentally. Super-advanced technology, and the interference of non-human races, sets the stage for a science fiction environment. A multinational policing agency in the form of S.H.I.E.L.D. has been created as a result of these things. A select few people have also appeared who are more than human, setting the stage for a world with superheroes and villains.
Super Heroes and Villains
The tradition of using costumed identities to fight (or commit) evil had long existed in this world, first by Captain America in the 1940s and then by Iron Man in modern times. Earth-199999's major heroes (the ones who get involved in most of the important events) are Iron Man, Thor, Captain America, the Hulk, and ex-S.H.I.E.L.D. agents Black Widow and Hawkeye. These heroes became the original Avengers, the world's premier superhero team. There are also "street level" heroes who wage more personal wars in their own sphere of influence far from the globe-spanning activities of the Avengers.
Of course, as one would expect in a universe with superheroes, there would inevitably have to be crime and evil, and this universe is by far no exception. Loki, the Abomination, A.I.M, Hydra, Thanos and Ultron are among them.
Earth-199999 is more scientifically oriented than Earth-616. For example, whereas the gods from the original comics have genuinely supernatural powers, in Earth-199999, the Asgardians' powers seems to be from exotic and advanced alien technology. Numerous "magical" artifacts have technological aspects and functions, Yggdrasil is a cosmic nimbus, and both Thor and Jane claim that to be "science" (Jane even cites Arthur C. Clarke's third law: "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic"). However, the nature of the Asgardians' power and magic in general on Earth-199999 is not fully explored nor truly discards the possibility of supernatural. For example, Asgard is shown as a flat world, which clearly contradicts laws of physics, and it has also been revealed that Asgardian "technology" is powered by the "Odin Force". Thor's own affirmation over this - "Your ancestors called it magic, but you call it science. I come from a land where they are one and the same." - is rather ambiguous, since while Thor is apparently agreeing with Jane's assertion that the gods are aliens with advanced technology.
A brand of sorcery comes into play in Doctor Strange. In this area, extradimensional energy is harnessed by those learned in the mystic arts, and manipulated for a variety of purposes. Typically, masters of the mystic arts use this energy to form fiery orange constructs for use as weapons or shields, or to open access to the Mirror Dimension. Jonathan Pangborn was able to channel it to power his otherwise crippled body, thereby enabling him to walk freely despite never demonstrating any other use for his power. Those who tapped energy from the Dark Dimension exhibited minor physiological changes, and they began conjuring weapons of a more spectral, smoky appearance. Another common practice is to imbue relics with mystic power in order to sustain powerful magics that people cannot, and particularly potent relics are said to choose their wielders.
The Big Bang
Before the Big Bang, there were six singularities. These opened up and their resulting Big Bang created the universe. The six then compacted into primordial nuggets that came to be known as Infinity Stones.
Millions of Years Ago
The Kree came to earth and experimented with humans to genetically modify them into weapons (giving them powers), using a process called Terrigenesis. Their first test subject Hive was made to command the army of modified humans, but Hive turned the army against the Kree and drove them from Earth. After the Kree left their experiments, the experimented humans formed their own secret society calling themselves the Inhumans. Hive led them, until the Inhumans and the regular humans turned on Hive and banished him to an alien world that they called Maveth through the Kree Monolith. A cult formed not long after made out of Hive's followers that's purpose was to bring Hive back from Maveth. That cult would be renamed in the 20th Century as Hydra.
Thousands of Years Ago
Some time later, Malekith sought to harness the power of the Aether, one of the Infinity Stones, to plunge the Nine Realms into darkness as it was before life was breathed into it. His attempt was foiled by the Asgardians and their king Bor. Malekith resorted to sacrificing most of his people, and fell into sleep for five thousand years, until the next Convergence.
The Dark Ages
After the defeat of the Dark Elves, Asgardians came to the planet known as Earth, visiting the peoples of Northern Europe and teaching them language and culture. Most importantly Asgardians protected them from the Frost Giants. Early Norse cultures learned much from these visits, although in time the Asgardians would withdraw and their memory would fall into legend.
The 1940s were a tumultuous time on Earth. Depression years and racial disharmony in Europe sparked a Second World War that pressed various factions into a technology race. While Nazi forces occupied much of Central Europe, Hydra was making gains in unconventional warfare. Their leader Johann Schmidt actually managed to procure one of the Infinity Stones; the Tesseract, left behind on Earth by Asgardians. In studying this device Hydra scientists were able to devise new and deadly weapons for their war effort.
In America, Abraham Erskine and Howard Stark were poised on the verge of a breakthrough that would set the stage for the world of the modern "superhero". Erskine had developed a "Super-Soldier" serum that was to transform a soldier from an ordinary man into something altogether stronger, faster, and more resilient. As a result of this experimental process, Steven Rogers became the world's first superhero, "Captain America", but not without cost. Erskine was assassinated and most of the remaining samples of the serum were destroyed before the project could be pushed into widespread use. Rogers and his Howling Commandos defeated Schmidt, all but destroying Hydra in the process, but at the cost of Captain America himself being listed as missing in action. The greater war was won, not with super soldiers, but with countless lives lost due to simple bloody warfare. Once the war was done, the Strategic Scientific Reserve that created Captain America evolved into a world-spanning security agency they named, Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement and Logistics Division (S.H.I.E.L.D.)., with one of its key members being Rogers's former superior and girlfriend Peggy Carter. A collaborator in developing S.H.I.E.L.D. was a former Hydra scientist captured during the War, Arnim Zola, who was secretly also using S.H.I.E.L.D.'s own personnel to create an undercover resurgence of Hydra.
After the success of the Captain America serum, many pursued the creation of another weapon via advances in science. Scientist Hank Pym was the first to succeed, creating a compound that would allow him to shrink down to insect size, yet still retain the strength of an average human. He named his findings as Pym Particles and donned the mantle of Ant-Man, making it his mission to protect the world from potential threats.
Howard Stark, who had assisted with Erskine's program, went on to develop numerous advances in technology and shape the modern world. Learning from the recovered Tesseract, he went on to develop prototype arc reactors, powerful sources of energy in their own right. He eventually died in a car accident, leaving his business empire to his young son, Tony, and Stark Industries grew into a world renowned supplier of weapons technology.
The dawn of the superhero age might have looked like a brief spark to those who grew up reading the exploits of Captain America, but it was soon to flare into a far brighter flame. The secrets of Erskine's formula had baffled scientists for decades until Dr. Bruce Banner explored a new direction and bombarded himself with gamma radiation to prove his theories. His experiment was successful in augmenting the human form, but the extent of the mutation was far beyond anything anyone could have anticipated. Banner was transformed into a raging green beast that was later dubbed the "Hulk".
The young Tony Stark had spent the years since his father's death learning the role of businessman and further developing his father's company. An inventive genius himself, he was personally responsible for many of the innovations that made Stark Industries a world leader in weapons technology. On a trip to Afghanistan his convoy was ambushed, and he was held captive and forced to develop weapons for terrorists. He escaped from his captors by building a battlesuit for himself rather than the missile they wanted, but the whole incident had a profound effect on him. He turned his company away from the path of violence, while constructing a series of high-tech battlesuits that he wore into battle himself. Tony's vigilante actions had the effect of ushering in a new superhero age, and taking a leaf from the press he began publicly referring to his heroic persona as "Iron Man".
Iron Man's activities led S.H.I.E.L.D. to take an interest in him. They approached Stark on several occasions and reviewed him for potential inclusion into a select group of individuals, but ultimately withdrew from seeking his personal involvement due to his erratic nature. Instead they turned their attentions to exploring weapons technologies. Their mandate was to protect the world from such powerful threats as the Hulk and to this end they began to grow from a clandestine police agency into a powerful military force.
S.H.I.E.L.D. kept a close eye on multiple threats at once, Tony Stark's adventures as Iron Man, atmospheric disturbances in New Mexico, and Banner's return to the United States. Soon, the Hulk was made known to the public due to brief battles with the military and another huge monster. Banner wasn't hailed as a hero like Tony Stark had been. Instead, Banner was forced into hiding again, learning how to control the Hulk rather than cure it.
The Asgardians, thought to be nothing more than a myth after centuries of absence, returned once again to the world when the heir to the throne of Asgard found himself banished until he could prove himself worthy to rule Asgard. While his initial appearance went unnoticed to all but a few scientists, his hammer Mjolnir caused quite a stir after it impacted in Puente Antiguo, New Mexico, and also drew the attention of S.H.I.E.L.D. Thor did eventually reclaim his birthright and announced that S.H.I.E.L.D. could thereafter count him as an ally.
Alliances would be needed again soon enough. Thanos, in a bid to acquire the Infinity Stones, struck a deal with Thor's brother Loki, to acquire the Tesseract in exchange for rule over the Earth. Immediately upon his surprise return, Loki stole the Tesseract away from S.H.I.E.L.D. In a desperate bid to counter this threat, S.H.I.E.L.D. reactivated an old plan to assemble a group of extraordinary individuals. They called on Tony Stark and Bruce Banner for their scientific expertise. Captain America, reawakened after decades of being frozen in Arctic ice, was called upon to be a super soldier once more. Thor, and S.H.I.E.L.D. agents Romanoff and Barton stepped in to round out the new team. Calling themselves the Avengers, they fought Loki and his army of Chitauri to a standstill.
In the wake of the Battle of New York, the world had become a changed place. Some feared the prospect of threats from beyond the known world, but the next threat of significance was a series of terrorist bombings around the globe. Authorities searched in vain for the culprit behind it, and were confounded by the series of hijacked television broadcasts that followed. In the end it was Iron Man, and his ally the Iron Patriot, who put a stop to the terrorist attacks. The heroes and other gifted humans became either idolized for saving the world, or feared due to all the destruction and collateral damage caused in the process.
Contact with worlds beyond Earth was renewed when the Nine Realms of Asgardian cosmology came into alignment. A threat known as the Aether from a dark time before the Asgardians' protection of the known worlds was reawakened at this Convergence, and with it came the dark elves. It took the combined efforts of Thor and many of his friends to prevent reality itself from being plunged back into darkness.
In response to these numerous threats, S.H.I.E.L.D. commissioned a powerful new protection measure in the form of three new helicarriers. Suspicions surrounding the purpose of these new warships soon saw rogue elements within the agency turn from it and expose a deeper threat behind the new construction effort: Hydra had been infiltrating S.H.I.E.L.D. from within, swelling its ranks and influencing its actions, since the end of the Second World War. Hydra's plans for the new helicarriers were finally dashed through the efforts of Captain America and a few of his trusted allies.
S.H.I.E.L.D. ultimately tore itself apart in an internal war between operatives loyal to its founding principles, and those loyal to Hydra. Agent Phil Coulson, resurrected from death just prior to the Battle of New York, and his team evaded much of the conflict, and were instrumental in exposing several of Hydra's many operations. As Coulson had been loyal to the end, Nick Fury appointed him the new director of a new S.H.I.E.L.D. as the agency began to reform. Unknown to both, the agents who survived the Hydra uprising aboard the Iliad, led by Robert Gonzales, had formed a S.H.I.E.L.D. of their own.
Far from Earth, a number of factions sought to procure the Orb. Despite a number of very powerful individuals committing vast resources into recovering this object, Peter Quill, a rogue star-hopping native of Earth who had been abducted from his homeworld in his childhood, was the first to claim it. The Orb in truth contained one of the legendary Infinity Stones, and it was soon wrested from Quill by Ronan the Accuser to be used as a weapon to commit genocide of a star-spanning empire. Quill and a ragtag band of criminals executed a daring plan that saw them successfully oppose Ronan and ultimately place the Orb in safekeeping with the Nova Corps. This act earned them the name of Guardians of the Galaxy.
On the streets of New York, "masked superheroes" were given a whole new meaning when blind attorney Matt Murdock began his one-man war against the crime syndicates plaguing Hell's Kitchen. Becoming a crime fighting vigilante, he took down Wilson Fisk, the leader of these criminal organizations, obtaining the name "Daredevil" in the process.
The Avengers, reformed after the fall of S.H.I.E.L.D., sought to secure the alien sceptre that had been a pivotal part of the Battle of New York two years prior. The computational power of the sceptre, however, had an unexpected impact on Tony Stark's artificial intelligence projects, and gave rise to the sentient AI, Ultron. Ultron interpreted his mandate to preserve life as a mandate to wage war on organic life in order to allow his own artificial life to flourish, and so he created an android body for himself to house the newly found Infinity Stone hidden within the sceptre. The Avengers challenged Ultron's evolutionary designs, and defeated his army of robots, but at such great cost that the war saw a partial fragmentation and reformation of the team.
While snuffing out the final remnants of Hydra, the agents of a new S.H.I.E.L.D., led by Phil Coulson, discovered the Inhumans, descendants of earlier humans who were Kree test subjects, and that one of his own agents, Skye, was part of this lineage. The rise of the Inhumans put S.H.I.E.L.D. in conflict with many different factions, but in the end, they prevented all-out war and started a new specialized task force to keep the peace between man and Inhuman.
Pym Particles resurfaced as yet another threat to the modern world when research scientist Darren Cross sought to rediscover methods of harnessing their power with a view to profiting from selling the technology to military interests. Dr. Hank Pym came out of retirement to put a stop to this plan, and drew Scott Lang, a resourceful engineer and former convict, into his sphere of influence to help him by taking on a mantle he had once worn himself. As the Ant-Man, Lang was able to halt the mass distribution of Pym's dangerous technology with the help of Dr. Pym and a few close allies.
Hell's Kitchen became the map of a violent cat and mouse game when private investigator Jessica Jones sought to stop the psychopath Kilgrave from causing harm with his mind control ability. Jessica put a stop to him in the end, but the loss and damage that had been done were enough to further the unrest between enhanced heroes and the civilians they sought to protect.
Following this and a number of isolated events, the New York District Attorney's office began a pubic manhunt for all vigilantes, focusing on Daredevil and the lone gunman known as the Punisher. However, Murdock's efforts to aid the Punisher were interrupted by the arrival of the ninja cult The Hand. It took the partnership of Daredevil and Elektra to stop the Hand from destroying New York, while the Punisher took measures to permanently eradicate most of New York's criminal organizations.
On the world's stage, rising concerns about the unchecked power of enhanced individuals resulted in an international body of nations drafting up the Sokovia Accords, a weighty document intending to curtail the excesses of superhuman power. While initially the impetus for this measure was the damage from the various public battles fought by the Avengers, a further call for restraint came when the Avengers botched a mission which had resulted in a number of civilian casualties. On the day that the Sokovia Accords were to be signed, a bomb blast in the street outside the building killed the reigning king of Wakanda, and the apparent culprit was yet another enhanced person. The world had been duped however, and the Avengers recent failures, along with the bombing, had been the result of a grieving man's plans to sow the seeds of discord and tear apart the Avengers from within. The ploy was wildly successful in achieving this end, and left the worlds pre-eminent superhero team in a fractured state.
The agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. did their best to covertly contain Inhumans and other threats to world security. They were once again challenged when they discovered a sub-cult within Hydra, devoted to a being believed to be the first Inhuman. This being was successful in returning to Earth and assuming control of Hydra, which put it into conflict with S.H.I.E.L.D.. The agents were able to destroy the being, but the process of doing so resulted in the loss of a few agents and a major power shift within the organization.
Harlem, a community founded on the hopes and aspirations of New York's ethnic minorities, experienced upheaval when crime lords, and a local body politician with connections to the criminal underworld, sought to increase their stake in the city. Luke Cage, a man with incredible strength and unbreakable skin, became something of a reluctant hero as he engaged in a personal war against these elements. His actions proved to be central to the downfall of a number of criminals illegally profiting from the people of Harlem, and he found himself publicly regarded as a hero of the people as a result.
Humanity had a close brush with extradimensional forces when Kaecilius, a rogue sorcerer, led a small splinter group away from the Masters of the Mystic Arts and stole forbidden knowledge from the Book of Cagliostro. His actions sparked a clandestine struggle between his own sect and the ancient order that resulted in the demise of many on both sides, including Earth's resident Sorcerer Supreme. Dr. Stephen Strange, an unlikely and reluctant hero, rose through the ranks of the masters to fight this menace, and ultimately stood alone in saving the world.
S.H.I.E.L.D. agents had a brush with the supernatural themselves when the Darkhold was uncovered and opened. After having corrupted Eli Morrow, who vainly sought to use its dark power, it became an object of great interest to Dr. Holden Radcliffe. Radcliffe initially had his artificial creation, Aida, absorb knowledge from the book, and then had her create an artificial world within a digital network of computer systems worldwide. The S.H.I.E.L.D. agents, while successful in bringing an end to Morrow's attempt to secure unrestrained power, were less successful in dealing with the technological problem that Radcliffe had created. Radcliffe himself died by Aida's hand, while several S.H.I.E.L.D. agents were left trapped in his artificial digital world.
Fifteen years after a plane went missing in the Himalayas, apparently claiming the lives of the wealthy Rand family, a young man arrived in New York claiming to be the lost Daniel Rand who had been aged ten at the time of the crash. Rand had returned to New York on a personal quest to investigate the Hand, and had brought with him a knowledge and power of the Iron Fist, an ancient power harnessed by a lone warrior of the Order of the Crane Mother. After struggling to prove his identity, Rand eventually came to blows with elements of the Hand and successfully reclaimed a stake in his late father's company, ending rogue operations to supply and distribute synthetic heroin in the process.
The Marvel Cinematic Universe contains a wide array of material in a number of formats, including:
- Theatrical films
- Phase 1: Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, Marvel's The Avengers
- Phase 2: Iron Man 3, Thor: The Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Guardians of the Galaxy, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man
- Phase 3: Captain America: Civil War, Doctor Strange, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Thor: Ragnarok, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, Ant-Man and the Wasp, Captain Marvel, Untitled Avengers film, Untitled Spider-Man film
- Short Films, known as Marvel One-Shots: The Consultant, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Thor's Hammer, Item 47, Agent Carter, All Hail the King
- Television series
- ABC series: Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., Marvel's Agent Carter, Marvel's Inhumans, Marvel's Damage Control
- Unproduced Pilots: Marvel's Most Wanted
- Netflix series: Marvel's Daredevil, Marvel's Jessica Jones, Marvel's Luke Cage, Marvel's Iron Fist, Marvel's The Defenders, Marvel's The Punisher
- Freeform series: Marvel's Cloak & Dagger
- Hulu series: Marvel's Runaways
- ABC series: Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., Marvel's Agent Carter, Marvel's Inhumans, Marvel's Damage Control
- Comic Tie-ins: Iron Man: I Am Iron Man, Marvel's Iron Man 2 Adaptation, Iron Man 2: Public Identity, Iron Man 2: Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. #1, Captain America: First Vengeance, Marvel's Captain America: The First Avenger Adaptation, Marvel: The Avengers Prelude: Fury's Big Week, Marvel: The Avengers: Black Widow Strikes, Marvel's Thor Adaptation, Marvel's Iron Man 3 Prelude, Marvel's Thor: The Dark World Prelude, Captain America: The Winter Soldier Infinite Comic #1, Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy Prequel Infinite Comic #1, Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy Prelude, Avengers: Age of Ultron Prelude: This Sceptre'd Isle Infinite Comic #1, Marvel's Ant-Man Prelude, Marvel's Ant-Man - Scott Lang: Small Time Infinite Comic #1, Marvel's Jessica Jones #1, Marvel's Captain America: Civil War Prelude, Marvel's Captain America: Civil War Prelude Infinite Comic #1, Marvel's Doctor Strange Prelude, Guardians of the Galaxy Adaptation, Marvel's Spider-Man: Homecoming Prelude
- Theatrical films
- Marvel Cinematic Universe-inspired comics: Iron Man: The Price of Doing Business #1, The Incredible Hulk: The Big Picture #1, Iron Man/The Incredible Hulk/Nick Fury #1, Iron Man 2: Fist of Iron #1, Cap and Thor! Avengers #1, Marvel: The Avengers: The Avengers Initiative #1, Iron Man: The Coming of the Melter #1, Captain America Homecoming #1, Guardians of the Galaxy: Galaxy's Most Wanted #1, Avengers: Operation Hydra #1, Ant-Man: Larger Than Life #1, Avengers: Age of Ultron: Episode 0 #1, Red Widow: First Strike, Captain America: Road to War #1, Doctor Strange: Mystic Apprentice #1, Red Widow: The Last O.P.U.S., Doctor Strange: Episode 0 #1.
- Video Games: Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Iron Man 2, Thor: God of Thunder, Captain America: Super Soldier, Iron Man 3: The Official Game, Thor: The Dark World - The Official Game, Captain America: The Winter Soldier - The Official Game
- Novels: Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Iron Man 2, Iron Man 2: The Official Movie Storybook, Thor's Revenge, Black Widow: Forever Red, Black Widow: Red Vengeance
- This universe was visited off-screen by the Young Avengers when they traveled the Multiverse looking for Speed.
- This universe's official designation was revealed in the hardcover of Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z #5.
- Due to their movie rights being owned by 20th Century Fox, the X-Men and the Fantastic Four (and all of the related characters associated with those franchises) cannot currently appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
- The upcoming film Venom that is being developed by Sony Pictures is currently not planned to be part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, and will instead take place in its own continuity.
- Characters from Earth-199999
- Other things related to Earth-199999
- Earth-199999's Appearances
- Earth-199999's Minor Appearances
- Media Earth-199999 was Mentioned in
- Images from Earth-199999
- Reality Gallery: Earth-199999
- Earth-199999 at Wikipedia.org
- Marvel Cinematic Universe Wiki
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Guardians of the Galaxy (film)
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 2 11
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 2 12
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 2 16
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 3 8
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Thor: The Dark World
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Thor (film)
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Captain America: The First Avenger
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Marvel's The Avengers
- ↑ Marvel's Agent Carter
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Captain America: The Winter Soldier
- ↑ Marvel's Ant-Man Prelude #2
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Ant-Man (film)
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Iron Man (film)
- ↑ The Incredible Hulk (2008 film)
- ↑ Iron Man 2 (film)
- ↑ Marvel: The Avengers Prelude: Fury's Big Week #1-#4
- ↑ The Incredible Hulk (film)
- ↑ Iron Man 3 (film)
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 1 1
- ↑ Marvel's Jessica Jones Season 1 4
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 1 22
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 2 15
- ↑ Marvel's Daredevil Season 1 13
- ↑ Avengers: Age of Ultron
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 2 22
- ↑ Marvel's Jessica Jones Season 1 13
- ↑ Marvel's Daredevil Season 2 13
- ↑ Captain America: Civil War
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 3 22
- ↑ Marvel's Luke Cage Season 1 13
- ↑ Doctor Strange (film)
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 4 17
- ↑ Marvel's Iron Fist Season 1 13
- ↑ Young Avengers Vol 2 #8
- ↑ Kit, Borys, "'Spider-Man' Spinoff 'Venom' Revived at Sony (Exclusive)", Hollywood Reporter, 2016-03-04. Retrieved on 2017-03-22.
- ↑ Trumbore, Dave, "Exclusive: Sony Developing ‘Venom’ as R-Rated Start to Their Own Marvel Universe", Collider, 2017-03-27. Retrieved on 2017-03-27.