"Serum" is somewhat of a misnomer, as the "serum" actually consists of various processes.
Characters that are considered by a enhancement true "Peak-Potential" are noted to be Captain America, Isaiah Bradley, Josiah X, Protocide (SSS Variant), Union Jack (different SSS variant), and Black Panther (Wakanda-herb). Variations of the Super-Soldier Serum have been developed over the years which induced greater-mutations then Peaked human capabilities, one which even created the powerful Sentry. So far it would appear that Captain America is the only one referenced as the next step in human evolution or being classified as the Perfect Man.
The more powerful variants come with strange side-effects that may also include mental deficiencies.
Those people who attempted to recreate the Super Soldier Serum had become something far more than a peak "potential" and then became superheroes and supervillains.
The first known Super-Soldier Serum was developed as part of a top secret US Government experiment called Operation: Rebirth. The creator of the Super-Soldier formula was Abraham Erskine, code-named "Professor Reinstein".
The first, and arguably the most successful, recipient of the serum was Steve Rogers. Selected by General Chester Phillips of the U.S. Army to undergo testing, Rogers was at last administered the Super-Soldier serum. Given part of the compound intravenously and another part orally, Rogers was then bombarded by "vita-rays," a special combination of exotic (in 1941) wavelengths of radiation designed to accelerate and stabilize the serum's effect on his body. Steve Rogers emerged from the vita-ray chamber with a body as perfect as a body can be and still be human. A Nazi spy who observed the experiment murdered Dr. Erskine mere minutes after its conclusion. Erskine died without fully committing the Super-Soldier formula to paper, leaving Steve Rogers the sole beneficiary of his genius. 
Attempt to Reproduce Rebirth
After losing the secrets of the Super-Soldier Serum with the death of Dr. Erskine, the United States Army still wanted to produce more like Steve Rogers. Col. Walker Price and Dr. Wilfred Nagel forcibly recruited Isaiah and 300 other African-American solders to serve as test subjects to recreate the Super Soldier Serum. To keep the operation secret, families were sent letters informing them of the soldiers deaths. Although, Faith refused to accept the Isaiah's death, and continued to look for the truth.
Of the 300 African-American soldiers, only a handful of men survived the gruesome process. These survivors became a convert black ops team. After only a few missions, only Isaiah, Maurice Canfield and Sgt. Luke Evans remained. While waiting in Sintra, Portugal for the arrival of Captain America, Maurice discovered the truth about his parents' death. Enraged by the information, coupled with PTSD and an exaggerated thyroid gland, Maurice was led into a confrontation resulting in his death, the death of Sgt. Evans, and the severe injury of Isaiah and Pvt. Merritt.
The German biochemist Eric Schmitt concocted a variant of the Super-Soldier Formula. Imprisoned by the Nazis and dying, Schmitt asked Falsworth to keep the sample of the formula he had concealed on his person from falling into Nazi hands. Falsworth took the disguised flask, drank its contents, and was immediately physically enhanced by the formula. Falsworth escaped the prison and became a costumed fighter of Nazis within Germany itself known as the Destroyer.
In 1953 the man who would become the Grand Director flew to Germany, and examined the files of Major Kerfoot, a Nazi espionage officer in the SS. He discovered that the papers contained the original Super-Soldier formula. He revealed his discovery to certain high officials in the US government, and made a deal whereby he would become the new Captain America, and act as a symbol during the Korean War. How the original Super-Soldier formula came to be in the possession of the Nazis is unknown, especially as Erskine died without fully committing the Super-Soldier formula to paper.
Later, research scientist Dr. Noah Burstein at Seagate Prison recruited Luke Cage as a volunteer for experimental cell regeneration based on a variant of the Super-Soldier process he had previously used to empower Warhawk. Dr.Burstein immersed Lucas in an electrical field conducted by an organic chemical compound; when he left Lucas unattended, someone misused the experiment's controls, hoping to maim or kill Lucas. Lucas's treatment was accelerated past its intent, inducing body-wide enhancement that gave him superhuman strength and durability. 
The Navy was attempting to make its own version of Captain America using the 'AVX' patch (Acetovaxidol). Loosely based off of the process Luke Cage underwent, it was hoped that continued applications of the patch would be a more controllable dosage and keep the subject from going rogue. Unfortunately, the process seemed to aggravate Anti-Cap's mental problems.
Avengers: The Initiative
Dr. Erksine discovered similar results could be achieved with a perfect diet and an extremely specialized exercise program, which resulted in his grandson Michael van Patrick having the same peak physical condition naturally. The research was not classified or ever used by the military because they wanted a quick fix; the natural super soldier would take a lifetime of dedication to produce. Unless you get your hands on one and just clone him over and over. 
Patriot (Elijah Bradley) leader of the Young Avengers, was the nephew of Josiah X and grandson of Isaiah Bradley. He claimed that he received a blood transfusion from his grandfather gaining the same enhanced abilities. But in truth he was using the Mutant Growth Hormone. After the truth came out and quit the team. But he came to the rescue of his friends during the subsequent battle between the Kree and the Skrulls forces, the Young Avengers and the New Avengers, Patriot used himself to shield Captain America from gunfire, and was severely injured. After the battle Captain America rushed to the hospital to give Eli a blood transfusion only to discover "another Captain America", Eli's grandfather, had already given Eli his blood. Since the transfusion, Eli has gained physical attributes and powers of a real Super Soldier.
The Super-Soldier Serum, also called the Super-Soldier Formula, is the name for a process to increase the physical attributes of its recipient to the peak of human potential. Peak Humans are superior to any Olympic level athletes who have ever competed. Top athletes normally have one or two aspects close to, or a bit under, peak level. While peak human enhancements have all their capabilities like mind, strength, speed, durability, healing, eye sight, immune system, aging etc, at the maximum level of human potential. Dr. Reinstein established that this potential is the next step in human evolution for regular man(non-mutant), a man from the coming decades. Meaning one day humanity will reach this level on their own, in the far future.
Marvel Cinematic Universe (Earth-199999)
Dr. Abraham Erskine developed his serum while working in Germany. However a Nazi General Johann Schmidt used the serum to enhance himself becoming the Red Skull. Dr. Erskine later explained that the formula amplifies a persons key traits causing Schmidt to change.
Dr. Erskine escaped to the USA, he joined the Strategic Scientific Reserve There he took part in Project Rebirth, a project to create a Super Soldier for the Allies. Using Vita-Rays to unlock the serum's potential, Dr. Erskine successfully used the serum on Steve Rogers, who became the hero dubbed Captain America. Dr. Erskine was killed and the last vial of the original serum was destroyed by Heinz Kruger one of Hydra's top agents. The last remnants of the serum now only exist in Steve Rogers blood. 
In the 21st century scientists recreated a version of the serum as part of Project Centipede, designed to give a person superhuman abilities. This serum was mixture of Gamma Radiation and the Extremis virus, with technology from the Chitauri. 
Ultimate Universe (Earth-1610)
The Ultimate line simplifies many random elements by having many of the world's superheroes connected to Captain America's Super-Soldier Serum in some form or another. The Hulk was accidentally created while Dr. Bruce Banner was trying to recreate the serum, Norman Osborn accidentally created Spider-Man while attempting the same thing with the Oz Formula, which later mutated him into the Goblin. Weapon X and the entire mutant race were created as the Canadian response to the Serum, and so on. International supersoldier escalation and treaties being proposed to curb it. Several Spider-Man rogues were subjects of secret, illegal super soldier experiments. Captain America's illegitimate son with Gail Richards was born with the serum in his DNA. After his father's presumed death during WWII and taken from his mother, the son is raised on an army base where he appears to be a well-adjusted, physically superior and tactically brilliant young man who greatly resembles his father. However, his easy-going personality was a ruse. Around the age of seventeen, he kills over 200 men on the base and then cuts off his own face which leaves a "Red Skull" to reject his father.  Lieberman was another person subjected to the serum, but on a nite out he was involved in a fire scene and bravely rescued fifty-seven fire victims, but after saving them, he suddenly died. His body was taken back to the Triskelion and privately examined in which the cause of his death was determined to be due to his nervous system collapsing from the strain of the super-soldier serum.However, Lieberman's ascension to become (and replace) Captain America and his sudden death wasn't the first time that S.H.I.E.L.D. had been trying to replicate super-soldiers like Captain America, and that several other candidates like Lieberman perished with similar results.  Furious at the invasion of Iraq by American super-soldiers, scrawny Azerbaijani teenager Abdul Al-Rahman volunteered to undergo medical treatments to gain superhuman abilities that would allow him to strike back at America. The treatments were successful, and Al-Rahman rapidly gained muscle mass and an athletic physique. He was the first person since Steve Rogers responsive to the Super-Soldier Serum.
The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes (Earth-8096)
In this universe Steve Rogers was recruited by Colonel Chester Phillips to join the Super Soldier Program, due to unbreakable fighting spirit and strong will. Through the Super-Soldier Serum, created by Dr. Abraham Erskine soldier Steve Rogers was transformed into Captain America. 
Spider-Man: The Animated Series (Earth-92131)
In this universe the super-soldier formula created Captain America and was destroyed by Nazi spies. However, other scientists were able to create an imperfect version of the serum. Thus, each of five volunteers were affected differently, with their own unique powers which were very different from Captain America's. Also, their powers weren't permanent, and they were forced to ration their powers with keys. The five volunteers and Captain America formed the Six American Warriors.  As a 13-year-old boy during World War II, John Hardesky was tricked by Nazis into spying on the creation of Captain America, memorizing the formula used to create him. However, he then realized that he had been tricked and refused to reveal the formula to the Red Skull, fleeing. Hardesky grew up to be the Cat, a highly experienced burglar. He also fathered a daughter named Felicia. When he was caught in the midst of a jewel theft, the Cat was incarcerated in S.H.I.E.L.D., partly to protect his knowledge of the super soldier formula. Years later, he was abducted from custody by the Kingpin, who attempted to force him into revealing the formula. Hardesky did so after the crime lord kidnapped his daughter, and the recreated serum was tested out on her. As a result, Felicia became a crimefighter known as the Black Cat, and teamed up with Spider-Man to save her father, who then allowed himself to be taken back into S.H.I.E.L.D. custody to protect his knowledge. 
Some ingredients may be: Stabilizer, Prescribed steroids, Focus enhancers
- 53 Appearances of Super-Soldier Serum
- 52 Media Super-Soldier Serum was Mentioned in
- 2 Images featuring Super-Soldier Serum
- Item Gallery: Super-Soldier Serum
- Fan-Art Gallery: Super-Soldier Serum
Links and References
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Captain America Comics #1
- ↑ Truth: Red, White & Black #3
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Truth: Red, White & Black #4
- ↑ Truth: Red, White & Black #3- #4
- ↑ Luke Cage, Hero for Hire #1
- ↑ Captain America and The Falcon #1
- ↑ Avengers: The Initiative #1
- ↑ Young Avengers #10- #12
- ↑ Captain America: The First Avenger
- ↑ Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 1 1
- ↑ Ultimate Comics Avengers #1
- ↑ Ultimates Annual #1
- ↑ Ultimates Vol 2 #10
- ↑ Avengers Micro Episodes: Captain America Season 1 1
- ↑ Spider-Man: The Animated Series Season 5 4
- ↑ Spider-Man: The Animated Series Season 4 2
- ↑ Spider-Man: The Animated Series Season 4 3