|Kang the Conqueror|
|Real Name||Nathaniel Richards |
|Current Alias||Kang the Conqueror|
|Aliases||Whisperer, Victor Timely, Pharaoh Rama-Tut, Blue Man, Blue Totem, King of Kings, Master of Men, Lord of the Seven Suns, Victor Timely Jr, Victor Timely III|
|Relatives||Matriarch of the Eyriennes (ancestor);|
Nathaniel Richards (ancestor);
|Affiliation||Leader of the Chronos Corps, employer of the Anachronauts, Space Phantom, Council of Cross-Time Kangs|
|Base Of Operations||The 40th Century of Earth-6311, Chronopolis|
|Origin||Time traveler out to control all of history.|
|Place of Birth||Other Earth, 31st Century (Earth-6311)|
|Creators||Stan Lee, Jack Kirby|
- I am not human? Phah! As if being human was desirable! I am KANG! And that is better than being human!
- -- Kang the Conqueror
Nathaniel Richards has had various incarnations over the years and each identity has its own ever expanding history. For the sake of clarity this article will only cover the history of Nathaniel Richards during his time as Iron Lad. For more information on the other identities of Nathaniel Richards please refer to the entries on Iron Lad, the Scarlet Centurion, Rama-Tut and Immortus
In addition there are many alternate version of Kang in existence, for the sake of clarity, it is commonly accepted that each alternate Kang that has interacted with Earth-616 is a direct divergence from the "Prime" Kang of Earth-6311 while differentiating between each of these divergent Kangs is difficult, all those that are tied in with the Kang-Prime are listed here for reasons that will become evident to the reader.
OriginsNathaniel Richards was born in the 30th century of Earth-6311 a reality where humanity never went into the dark ages. After centuries of advancement and warfare, peace was brought to the land by a time-traveller from Earth-616 named Nathaniel Richards. Because Richards brought peace to this war-torn future, he began known as the legendary benefactor.  The Nathaniel Richards born to this reality is said to be an ancestor of the Benefactor, although other records also indicate that he may also be an ancestor of the Latverian monarch known as Dr. Doom.  At the age of 16, intervention from his future self, as Kang the Conqueror, resulted in young Nathaniel to try and prevent his eventual transformation in Kang, briefly becoming the young hero known as Iron Lad.  However Nathaniel Richards eventually returned to his native time to finally follow his proper destined path, possibly with his memories as Iron Lad erased, however at this time there is no conclusive explanation and the events leading to this are as yet unrecorded. As an adult, Nathaniel discovered a time machine and having grown bored of his peaceful time, traveled back in time to ancient Egypt on Earth-616. There he set himself up as a Pharaoh Rama-Tut until he was ousted from this position by the Fantastic Four.  Rama-Tut tried to flee back to his own era, but he was caught in a time storm and was forced to appear in the modern era of Earth-616. A chance encounter with his possible ancestor Dr. Doom,  inspired Nathaniel to abandon his Rama-Tut guise and assume one similar to Doom. In his first attempt, Nathaniel created the identity of the Scarlet Centurion, but abandoned this identity after being defeated by the Avengers 
Resuming his Rama-Tut guise, Richards attempted once again to return to his native 30th Century. The time-storm caused him to overshoot his own era and he ended up in the war torn 40th Century. There Rama-Tut found a war torn future where barbarians battled with technology from past eras of which they had know knowledge on they worked. Seeing his own personal knowledge on how these weapons operated, Rama-Tut found it simple to reinvent himself and conquer this era. Creating the identity of Kang the Conqueror, Richards began to do just that. First Kang conquered the Earth,  then began conquering the galaxy, taking over entire empires, including that of the Badoon.  But even this was not enough and Nathaniel's mind continued to turn back to the modern age of heroes and sought to conquer it as well.  One of his earliest observations of the past was when Kang briefly appeared over Times Square in New York City, circa 1939. This caused brief hysteria and some media coverage, but otherwise his appearance was dismissed as a hoax by the authorities of that time.  It has been stated that part of Kang's motivations for wanting to conquer the modern age was due to incomplete historical records that spoke of a Celestial Madonna who would sire the most powerful man in history. Kang was determined to learn the identity of the Madonna and ensure that he was the father of that child. 
To Conquer the Modern Age
When Kang appeared for the first time in the modern age of Earth-616, his ship landed outside of Washington D.C. Blasting a landing strip with his ship, Kang held off the United States Army with his advanced weapons and ordered that he would only speak with the leaders of the world. In response the United States government contacted the Avengers to deal with this unique crisis.  When the Avengers arrived to face Kang, his first show of power showed him easily capable of fighting off Earth's Mightiest Heroes. After revealing his origins to them and another battle, Kang easily defeated his foes and took them prisoner.  However while in the process of trying to imprison Captain America, the Star-Spangled Avenger broke free and battle Kang. Detecting that Rogers was from the 1940s, Kang arbitrarily decided that he did not belong and sent Cap hurtling back in time to the year 1945. The only members not captured we the Wasp and Captain America's sidekick Rick Jones. The two then began to plot how to free their comrades.  With the help of Mr. Fantastic of the Fantastic Four, they managed to rescue Captain America from 1945 then rallied Rick's Teen Brigade. The group pretended to want to side with Kang, completely fooling the conqueror who allowed them aboard his ship.  Rick, Teen Brigade and Captain America all worked together to free the captured Avengers.  The Avengers then confronted Kang and battled him anew, severely damaging his armor.  Kang then attempted to launch a Neutrino Missile, but this weapon was destroyed by Iron Man.  Kang then attempted to expose the Avengers to lethal rays of radiation, but this was focused back on him by Thor,  forcing Kang to flee back to his own era.  Kang has also stated that during this encounter he placed a time probe to monitor for the appearance of the Celestial Madonna.  Unforeseen by Kang at this time, each of his travels into the past created divergent versions of himself, all of which ruled their own divergent empires and continued their own schemes.  One particular Kang referred to himself as the "Prime" Kang, although he has admitted that he cannot be certain for sure. Following this humiliating defeat, a divergent version of Kang decided to set up a beachhead in the 20th Century in which he could begin planning his conquest of the modern age. He traveled back in time to January 1, 1901 where he established the town of Timely, Wisconsin under the guise of Victor Timely and became the town's mayor. He also established factories and a business, Timely Industries. Teaching his staff the basic principles of robotics. Kang also established the realm of Chronopolis which originally started as a fortress out of synch with time in the exact are of Timely, but it eventually grew and branched off to become a massive cross-roads between Earth's past, present and future. Kang used Chronopolis to monitor his conquests and when he was away from Timely, he had robotic stand-ins that would seemingly age and eventually "Victor Timely" died. He was replaced with "Victor Timely Jr." In 1929, Kang while posing as Timely Jr, employed Phineas Horton, and through this employment Horton eventually developed the technology that brought the original Human Torch android to live in 1939. By the 1980s, and using the guise of Victor Timely III, Kang had made Timely Industries a successful technology manufacturer. Timely technology indirectly were responsible for much of the later advancements and some of this technology eventually went into the equipment used by Mr. Fantastic of the Fantastic Four, the cybernetic arm of detective Misty Knight and the design for Roxxon Oil's Deathlok cyborg among others.  During this time the "Prime" Kang continued to observe the Avengers, keeping track of their exploits and line-up changes.  He also focused on his further conquest of the 40th century, waging war against the Shi'ar and the Skrulls. Through his monitoring of the Avengers he also learned of another time-traveler calling himself Immortus, who unknown to Kang, was his future self.  When one divergent Kang returned his attentions to the Avengers again, he built a robot based on the novice hero Spider-Man and used it to try and lure the Avengers into a trap. However this plot was foiled thanks to the intervention of the real Spider-Man who defeated his robotic doppelganger. 
Another divergent version of Kang decided to try and conquer the modern age of heroes by taking over a past century in the hopes of erasing his foes from existence. He began monitoring the 6th century, and when the heroic Black Knight was away battling his foe Morgan le Fay he attacked the kingdom of Camelot.  He quickly incapacitated the wizard Merlin and bested King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. He then took over the kingdom of Camelot and began using his advanced intelligence to help the knights construct sophisticated weapons for that era in the hopes of conquering the Earth. However Kang's attempt to take over the 6th century was witnessed by the Watcher who brought the Fantastic Four's Human Torch and the Thing into the past to stop Kang. While the Thing battled Kang's forces, the Torch freed Merlin. When the wizard disabled Kang's power source, the two heroes easily defeated him, forcing Kang to flee back to his own time.  The true Kang still continued to monitor the Avengers, witnessing their first line-up change which included Captain America, Hawkeye, the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver.  He was later possibly the Kang that was manipulated by his possible ancestor, Dr. Doom, who used his emotion-changer device to gather an army of super-villains to attack the wedding of Mr. Fantastic and the Invisible Girl.  Kang was involved in a massive battle between the gathered super-villains and the heroes who were attending the wedding.  The battle came to an abrupt end when the Watcher provided Reed Richards with a time displacer which he used to send the villains back to where they came from, with all memory of their attack erased,  however through reviewing recordings of his exploits Kang eventually remembered this battle. 
Kang briefly returned to the 40th century to continue his conquests of worlds there.  He later discovered the dimension of Kosmos and its size-changing properties that are tied to Pym Particles. He conquered this dimension and enslaved its native Kosmosians forcing them to assist in the creation of his Growing Men constructs.  Once the Kosmosians completed their task, Kang hid the Growing Men in various eras to hide these potent weapons from his enemies. 
Princess RavonnaIn his native 40th Century, the true Kang had fallen in loved with Princess Ravonna Renslayer a princess of an Earthly kingdom. Due to his love for Ravonna, Kang allowed her father to remain in rule of his kingdom but pressured Ravonna to marry him in order for her father to continue to maintain his autonomy from Kang's empire. Ravonna refused his hand in marriage and Kang sought to prove his power to her by transporting the Avengers Hawkeye, Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch to his era and defeating them in battle. Later when Captain America learned that his fellow Avengers were kidnapped, he issued a challenge to his foe and was brought to the future and defeated him as well. These defeats did nothing to impress Ravonna, and Kang ordered his forces to attack, just as the Avengers recovered to defend the kingdom.  Kang and his army easily overtook the small kingdom and the Avengers were once more defeated and taken prisoner. However, when Kang decided to spare Ravonna and her father, this earned the ire of his commanders who saw this mercy as weakness. Chief among these was his the commander known as Baltag who sought to usurp command of Kang's armies. With his forces turned against him, Kang realized that his love for Ravonna was greater than conquering this kingdom and he grudgingly realized that only the Avengers could help him fight off Baltag and his forces. The Avengers proved to be a great help defeated the army, it's commanders taken prisoner. Seeing Kang show compassion and caring, Ravonna decided to accept his romantic advances. Just as Kang was returning the Avengers to their own time, Baltag broke free and tried to shoot Kang in the back. Ravonna saw this and threw herself in the path of the weapon's beam and was struck down. Baltag was then executed. Ravonna seemingly died in Kang's arm, suggesting that perhaps their love was never meant to be.  However, Kang refused to let his love perish and used 40th century science to keep her in a state of suspended animation, not dead but not alive either.  Many of the alternate versions of Kang also experienced similar tragedies. 
The true Kang decided to put aside his pain and seek out even greater adventure, in his native time he clashed once again with the Shi'ar, forcing them to surrender. This did little to fill the void in his life and Kang soon desired to restore Ravonna to life.  However finding a means to do so did not occur directly as one of his Growing Men was unearthed in the modern age of Earth-616. Returning there to retrieve it, Kang engaged in another battle with Thor. Recovering his Growing Man, Kang then attempted to flee in his time machine, but Thor used his hammer Mjolnir to capture it in an infinity vortex, seemingly destroying Kang in the process.  In reality, another divergence was created with one Kang ending up in the timeless realm of Limbo while another ended up back in his native 40th century of Earth-6311.  The Kang that ended up in Limbo found the citadel of Immortus. Unaware that was a future version of himself, Kang began using his equipment to study history. Coming across the moment when Ravonna was about to sacrifice her life for him, Kang activated a device that pluck Ravonna out of the time-stream, creating a divergent reality in which Kang was slain in her stead, an incident that horrified Kang. 
Game of the Galaxies
The divergent Kang who ended up back in the 41st century of Earth-6311 crushed a small rebellion before he continued to find a means to revive Roavonna. After many fruitless attempts to restore her, the Elder of the Universe known as the Grandmaster appeared before him. The Grandmaster offered Kang a challenge: To pit champions of his choice against those of the Grandmaster's own making. If Kang's champions won, he would be given the power over life and death. If Kang lost, the Grandmaster would then obliterate the Earth. Kang agreed to the terms and was given a year to gather his chosen champions.  Kang chose his old foes the Avengers to represent him. After plucking the Black Panther from his homeland of Wakanda, Kang then sent one of his Growing Men to New York City. There his creation kidnapped Tony Stark from a hospital where he was recovering from a heart attack to lure the Avengers into a beam that brought them to the future. The Avengers agreed to battle for Kang on the condition that Stark was returned to the present to seek medical treatment. Captain America, Goliath and Thor were then transported to modern day Earth where they were to battle the Grandmaster's created minions the Squadron Sinister.  The trio were joined by Iron Man, and they went to four different locations to stop each Squadron member from stealing a national landmark, while Kang and the Grandmaster observed events from the future.In New York City, Captain America prevented Nighthawk from stealing the Statue of Liberty. Iron Man stopped Dr. Spectrum from absconding with the Taj Mahal in India. In Egypt, Thor stopped Hyperion from taking the Sphinx. Goliath traveled to London where he attempted to stop the Whizzer from stealing Big Ben. However interference from the heroic Black Knight caused the Grandmaster to call the battle a forfeit and transported Goliath and Whizzer back to the future, inadvertently transporting the Knight's Ebony Blade as well. With the first round in forfeit, Kang agreed to another match between the Grandmaster. This time they sent the Vision, Yellowjacket and the Black Panther to France circa 1941 to battle the original Invaders: Captain America, the Sub-Mariner and the original Human Torch. While this battle raged, the Black Knight used his mystical connection to the Ebony Blade to transport himself to the future and free the other Avengers who were being held in stasis. When the Avengers sent to 1941 succeeded in defeating their contemporaries they were brought back to the present just as their contained comrades confronted Kang. Declaring Kang the victor, the Grandmaster gave him the power over life and death. Unwilling to let go of his hatred over the Avengers, Kang wanted the power to kill the Avengers. However, he was felled by the Black Knight who at the time was not a member of the Avengers, and thus immune to his powers. With his defeat, Kang lost his powers over death and the Grandmaster sent the Avengers home before departing himself leaving Kang along to regret the choice that he had made. 
Records of which Kang engaged in what activities are hard to determine beyond this point, however it has been confirmed that the Prime Kang was still monitoring events in Limbo.  One version of Kang found a means of prolonging his life by developing a device that would transfer his mind into a cloned body in his native timeline upon death.  Determined that the best way to conquer the modern age was to start by affecting history in the 19th Century during World War I. Through his observations he learned that the fighter ace known as the Phantom Eagle was destined to destroy a German mortar cannon that would have changed the face of the war. If prevented from doing so, a French ancestor of Bruce Banner -- the man destined to become the Hulk, and a founding member of the Avengers -- would be killed. This Kang theorized that with the death of this ancestor the Avengers would never come to be. However when Kang attempted to travel to the year 1917 he was prevented from breaching that time period thanks to a time storm. Instead Kang decided to trick the Hulk, believing his near limitless strength could breach the barrier. Appealing to the Hulk's hatred of his alter-ego, Kang successfully sent the Hulk into the past. However, the Hulk inadvertently destroyed the cannon while trying to stop the Phantom Eagle. The time storm then began a sling shot effect, which Kang fought against but ultimately lost. While the Hulk was hurtled to his proper time, Kang himself was thrown into time and was seemingly lost in the time stream.  This Kang cheated this fate by transferring his mind to a new body. 
One Kang went on to find another beachhead to launch his attacks on the modern age, deciding to set up operations in the 23rd century of Earth-6297, due to the fact that possible future abolished all weapons and was powerless to stop his invasion. This earned the ire of that of a rival time traveler and would be conqueror, Zarrko the Tomorrow Man. Kang then used this front to capture the Avengers and imprison them in this future. With a time storm stopping him from breaching Kang's citadel, Zarrko recruited the modern day heroes Iron Man and Spider-Man, bringing them to the 23rd century knowing their presence would weaken the time storm. When the two heroes confronted Kang, Zarrko betrayed them and got the drop on Kang.  Zarrko then decided to use Kang's own plan to conquer the modern age using Kang's "Time Bombs", devices that would revert the people and technology of the era back to a more primitive time. While Zarrko and Kang were busy in a stand-off, Spider-Man revived and escaped back to his own era in a time machine. There he recruited the help of the Fantastic Four's Human Torch to locate and deactivate the Time Bombs.  Learning from the Torch that the FF's allies the Inhumans could assist him in using the last functional Time Bomb to return to the future, arriving just moments before Spider-Man originally left, Spidey and the Inhumans managed to get the drop on Zarrko and Kang. While Black Bolt freed the Avengers, Spider-Man rounded up Zarrko, but Kang managed to escape in the chaos leaving behind an empty suit of armor. 
Soon on particular Kang became aware that the Celestial Madonna was reaching her developmental protection as a new dawn star began shining in the sky of the modern age, suspended over Avengers Mansion. Kang traveled back to the modern era to collect the Celestial Madonna determining that it must be one of three women who were in residence at the mansion: the Scarlet Witch, the enigmatic Mantis or the elderly sorceress Agatha Harkness.  Kang unleashed his Macrobots upon the Avengers who were easily overpowered. Kang then took the three women as well as Thor, Iron Man, and the Vision prisoner. Kang then left the Swordsman behind, considering him the weakest of the Avengers and thus beneath his notice. Kang and his prisoner relocated to a secret lab hidden within an Egyptian pyramid built in Kang's honor during his days as Rama-Tut. There he plotted to begin World War III by encasing each of the male Avengers in one of his Macrobots and sending them to assassinate key political figures in the United States, China, and Russia in order to spark nuclear Armageddon. Thanks to the mystical guidance of Agatha Harkness. In breaching the pyramid, the Swordsman awoke the ancient vampire Amen-Hotep as well as the slumbering form of Rama-Tut who had been in suspended animation for over 5000 years in an attempt to stop his past self -- as Kang -- from continuing on his current path. The future Rama-Tut prevented the Swordsman from slaying Kang and brought him back to New York where they recruited Hawkeye, who at the time was no an active member of the Avengers. The trio stopped the Macrobot using the Vision to slay the United States Secretary of State at the UN Building in New York. They then traveled to China where they stopped the Macrobot leeching Iron Man's powers to try and eliminate the Chinese government's ruling class. Furious at this inference, Kang scrapped his plan to assassinate a Russian politician and unleashed the Thor powered Macrobot on the heroes which was also defeated. During the conflict the Avengers freed all the comrades, including the three captive females. Also during the fight, Kang revealed the true identity of Rama-Tut and learned that he is his future self. With the same man from different eras face to face, time ruptured revealing to all gathered that Mantis was destined to be the Celestial Madonna. With his plans being thwarted at every step, Kang decided that if he could not have the Celestial Madonna nobody could and tried to shoot Mantis. Despite interference from Rama-Tut, the shot was true, but before it could strike Mantis the Swordsman stepped in its path sacrificing his life for hers. Meanwhile Kang and Rama-Tut's scuffle sent them crashing into the controls of Kang's time-sphere and both men were lost in the time stream.  Both men were plucked out of the time stream and transported to Limbo by Immortus, and Immortus pretended to ally himself with Kang by imprisoning Rama-Tut. Immortus then gave Kang access to his devices to get revenge against the Avengers. Kang used this to gather various super-humans just moments from their deaths to form his Legion of the Unliving. These minions included the Frankenstein's Monster, Wonder Man, the original Human Torch, Midnight, the Ghost, and Baron Zemo. He then transported the Avengers to Limbo to battle his minions. 
Kang led his Legion into the vast labyrinth of Limbo to slay the Avengers and reclaim Mantis. However his control over the Legion began to weaken the longer they were active in Limbo, the first to break free from his control being the Frankenstein's Monster. The Legion managed to slay Iron Man and seriously damage the Vision in their hunt for the heroes.  During the battle, Kang sent Baron Zemo back to make sure that Rama-Tut and Kang did not escape. Meanwhile, his control on the Human Torch failed and with the help of the Frankenstein's Monster he managed to partially repair the Vision. Midnight on the other hand faced Mantis and was defeated. Wonder Man later fell battling Thor who then turned his vengeance on Kang for the death of Iron Man. Unable to withstand the blows of Thor's hammer, Kang once more fled into the time stream. Zemo was later defeated by Hawkeye who then freed Immortus and Rama-Tut. Immortus then brought Iron Man back to life, repair the Vision and sent the members of the Legion to face their destinies. Immortus then convinced Rama-Tut to return to his own destiny as well before revealing to the Avengers that he himself was a future version of Kang before sending the Avengers home.  It was later revealed to the Avengers that Mantis was to form a union with a member of the plantlike Cotati race who had taken on the form of her deceased lover the Swordsman and Immortus offered to officiate their wedding When the wedding was being planned in Vietnam, Kang reappeared in the present to make one more attack on the Avengers to try and capture Mantis. To this end he appeared in that era at three different moments, making three Kangs present. After taking down the communist heroes known as the Titanic Three, the three Kangs distracted Thor, Iron Man and Hawkeye who managed to capture all the duplicates. However the "real" Kang then kidnapped who he thought was Mantis and escaped into space. However, Immortus already knew what Kang was planning, and had his minion the Space Phantom take the form of Mantis, storing the real Celestial Madonna safely in Limbo. By the time the Space Phantom revealed his true form, it was too late for Kang, as Immortus succeeded in marrying Mantis and the Cotati and they tranformed into pure energy and left to meet their destiny in the stars. 
The American FrontierKang decided to once more attempt to alter the course of the modern age by conquering an earlier era, this time targeting the 19th century. However while travelling through the time stream, he was confronted by Hawkeye who was using Dr. Doom's time-platform to try and reach the 12th century. The two battled it out, but ended up throwing themselves into the same era, only some time apart.  Appearing in the year 1873, Kang built an inn and saloon in the town of Tombstone, Arizona, convincing the locals that his mask was to cover a wound sustained in the American Civil War. He then used a device to sap the will of the locals and used them as slaves to build a massive citadel within the inn. Unaffected by this was the western hero known as the Two-Gun Kid who found happenings suspicious. He called out on other heroes of the west to help him investigate. The first to answer his call were the Rawhide Kid and Kid Colt. When they went to confront Kang, he revealed his true nature to them, unleashing a dinosaur summoned from the prehistoric past to drive them away.  While this was occurring three more time travelling Avengers --- Yellowjacket, Hawkeye and Songbird --- arrived in that era mistaking the chronal anomalies occurring were part of their on going Destiny War. Kang detected their presence, and not knowing who they were or what their intentions were took away the time-sphere given to them by Kang's future self before trying to kill them in a cave in. Back in town, Two-Gun Kid was joined by the Ringo Kid and the Night Rider and they attempted another attack on Kang. Kang took this moment to reveal his hidden citadel and then unleashed a biologically engineered lizard creature against the cowboys sending them fleeing. While Kang was distracted, the three time travelling Avengers managed to break into his citadel and escape in their recovered Time-Sphere. 
Eventually the version of Hawkeye who battled Kang in the timestream appeared in 1873 and quickly allied himself with the Two-Gun Kid and his friends to battle against Kang.  Learning that Hawkeye ran afoul of Kang in the timestream, his fellow Avengers Thor and Moondragon were led to him by Immortus. They were confronted by Kang in the timestream but managed to fight him back.  The duo were reunited with Hawkeye and they joined him and the cowboys in stopping outlaws hired by Kang from robbing a rail shipment of uranium.  With Thor taking on his mortal guise of Donald Blake, he, Hawkeye, Moondragon, and the Two-Gun Kid infiltrated Kang's fortress. There Kang unleashed a massive mutated coyote to battle the heroes. Since Thor was in his mortal form, Kang did not recognize him and Blake was able to slip away and break into Kang's control room. There he changed back into Thor and the two fought it out. Kang was no match for the Agardian thunder god's limitless strength and increased his force field too high causing it to seemingly disintegrate him. With Kang's seeming demise his fortress vanished. With Kang's seeming demise, Immortus led the Avengers to believe that he was erased from history as well, however this was revealed to be a ruse on Immortus' part.  This version of Kang survived as well, using his mind transmitter to swap to a newly cloned body in the 40th century.  This was witnessed by the "Prime" Kang who decided to develop a similar technology in order to cheat death himself. By this time the Prime Kang had formed a Council of Kangs in Limbo, consisting of himself, and two of his most cunning divergent selves. Seeing their alternates was insults to their legacy, they brought each alternate Kang to Limbo and executed them.  One of the first recorded Kangs to be eliminated by the council was a Kang who conquered the the 41st Century of Earth-8386 where he forced the people to slay each other for his own amusement. Following his death, a massive statue was placed to continue manipulating the people of this world to kill themselves until it was destroyed by the Hulk of Earth-616. 
Secret WarsSometime later the Earth-616 universe was visited by the Beyonder the powerful being sought to understand desire and summoned a group of heroes and villains. The heroes included the Avengers, three of the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, Magneto, the Hulk, and Spider-Man. The villains gathered were Galactus, Dr. Doom, Ultron, the Wrecking Crew, the Enchantress, Dr. Octopus, the Lizard, the Molecule Man, the Absorbing Man and one of the many divergent Kangs. The Beyonder then created Battleworld, a patchwork world comprised of chunks of various planets. He then told both sides to slay their enemies and all they desired would become theirs. Teleported planet side, Kang and the other villains set up operations in a high-tech facility. When Dr. Doom suggested that they rescind their petty desires to try and make contact with a seemingly all-powerful god, the other villains balked at this prompting Doom to bury them in debris and try to seek out the heroes. Unscathed by this attack, Kang watched as Doom flew away in an alien craft and blew it out of the sky. When the gathered heroes tried to assist Doom, he realized that they were unworthy of his plans as well and attack. He was soon joined by his fellow villains who were led by Kang while Doom fled.  During the ensuing battle the heroes captured Kang, the Enchantress as well as Thunderball, Piledriver and Bulldozer of the Wrecking Crew and imprisoned them at their own headquarters. The other villains fled back to Dr. Doom who had reprogrammed Ultron to be his loyal bodyguard and executioner. 
Doom discovered that a suburb of Denver, Colorado was part of Battleworld and empowered two of its natives into Volcana and Titania to bolster his ranks. He then launched an attack on the heroes headquarters, freeing Kang, and the Wrecking Crew. They were unable to rescue the Enchantress due to the fact that she was freed and ventured off with Thor earlier.  After successfully launching an attack wherein an entire mountain was dropped on the heroes, Thor and the Enchantress returned teleporting before the gathered villains. Kang and his comrades then piled onto the thunder god and seemingly slew him.  Seeking to avenge his previous betrayal and ensure loyalty, Dr. Doom later ordered Ultron to slay Kang, and the conqueror from the 40th century was atomized before his comrades. Thor and the other heroes survived their apparent deaths and continued to clash with their foes until Dr. Doom managed to steal the power of the Beyonder. With the power of the Beyonder, Doom sought to bring peace to the universe and to show his good faith to the heroes gathered he used his vast powers to resurrect Kang and return him to his proper place in time.  When recounting these events, Kang himself did not mention his resurrection, implying that he cheated death thanks to the device that transferred his mind to his new body.  There is no explanation for this omission. Ultimately, the heroes rebelled against Dr. Doom and with the help of the Beyonder defeated him. With the villains having escaped Battleworld, the Beyonder banished Dr. Doom and returned the heroes home. 
Soon the Beyonder arrived on Earth and assumed human form to learn about human desire. During his time on Earth, his existence became viewed as a threat to the natural order of the universe.  This prompted the demon Mephisto to create the Beyondersbane a device that utilized energies stolen from the Beyonder as well as that of Eternity. With the Beyondersbane only having a limited time before reaching critical mass, Mephisto devised a delivery of this powerful energy: an army of super-villains. He sent out his agents to make offer various villains their hearts desire in exchange for destroying the Beyonder. All these villains had to do was touch the Beyonder to unleash the power that would theoretically destroy him. Kang was one of the many villains who agreed to the deal joining Mephisto's Legion Accursed. They attacked the Beyonder while he was meditating on a secluded island. However they ultimately failed thanks to the Thing who came to the Beyonder's defense, holding the villains at bay long enough for the Beyondersbane to hit critical mass. When the device self-destructed the pact Kang and the others made with Mephisto became null and void and they were all teleported back to their points of origins.  Eventually, an army of heroes battled the Beyonder to the end, a battle that ended in the Beyonder's seeming demise and ending his threat for a time. 
Council of KangsBy this time, the Prime Kang and his two counterparts succeeded in apparently eliminating every alternate version of Kang in existence, the last being their Earth-267 counterpart. By this time the "Prime" Kang had been constructing robot duplicates of the eliminated Kangs to run their empires from remote and began plotting to eliminate his final two counterparts. He allowed one of his counterparts to infiltrate his secret sanctum where the Prime Kang then pretended to let him in on his secrets. Then after shocking the other Krang by revealing his still-living version of Ravonna, the Prime Kang shot him dead, as part of a plan to eliminate the Avengers and the final Kang. To this end he transported the Wasp, Hercules, and the Black Knight to Limbo. He then sent out a robot to confront the Avengers challenging them to find his citadel and fight for a means to return home.  When the heroes attempted tried to get information from the Space Phantom, Kang seemingly slew him before their eyes before unleashing a horde of Dire Wraiths upon them. While the Avengers were occupied the Prime Kang set up the dead body of the second Kang at a control console and contacted his third counterpart to trick him into returning to Limbo as they were under "attack" by the Avengers. Joined by Captain America, Captain Marvel and the Sub-Mariner, the Avengers reached Kang's citadel where they found the dead Kang. This coincided with the arrival of the third Kang who blamed the Avengers for murdering his counterpart and a fight broke out. When the third Krang realized that they had all been lured into a plot, the Prime Kang incapacitated them and imprisoned them in stasis beams, when they revived the Prime Kang informed those gathered that he would eliminate them.  The Prime Kang then revealed to his prisoners his own personal history and where he came to diverge from the other Kangs and his formation of the Council of Kangs to eliminate his inferior duplicates. All the while he was talking Hercules struggled against the stasis beam with his prestigious strength causing it to overload. Noticing this Ravonna remained quite, not revealing this fact to Kang. Eventually the strain proved too much and the Avengers broke free. Ravonna revealed his betrayal and while she held the third Kang prisoner, the Avengers went after Kang-Prime. As the Prime Kang fled, the third Kang convinced Ravonna to let him go free to get revenge and she relented allowing him to leave. When the third Kang caught up with the Prime, he tried to shoot his counterpart with a concealed weapon unaware that Kang-Prime had booby-trapped it and it exploded in his face killing him instantly. The Prime Kang was the only one left he remained defiant in front of the Avengers until Immortus appeared with Ravonna by his side. Immortus revealed that through the career of each Kang, he was there manipulating things behind the scene to ensure that the path that leads Kang to becoming Immortus is the only path Kang would ever take. Immortus explained that he manipulated the Prime Kang directly, allowing him to enter Limbo, placing a fake body, and setting in motion the formation of the Council of Kangs. Immortus then showed off the fruits of his labor: the Psyche-Globe, which contained the memories of every slain counterpart of Kang. Seeking this knowledge for himself Kang struggled with Immortus and seized the Psyche-Globe from his hands. However when Kang tried to use the Pscyhe-Prob is bombarded his mind with all the memories all at once threatening to drive him mad, as Kang had planned. Kang then fled into Limbo and when the Avengers tried to follow after him Immortus stopped them telling him that this was all ordained and sent the Avengers back to their proper place in time.  With his sanity quickly fleeting Kang triggered the time circuitry in his helmet creating two necessary divergent to divide the madness between. One returned to the 40th Century to recover. 
Council of Cross-Time KangsBy this time a group calling themselves the Council of Cross-Time Kangs was organized. They consisted of various other beings and aliens that slew their own realities version of Kang and usurped his identity. There are conflicting explanations as to why they were formed. Kang-Prime has previously stated that he was responsible for their creation while he has later considered them nothing more than pretenders and fools unworthy of his name.  By their own explanations they are apparently a higher order that sat above various alternate Councils of Kang, each member being the sole survivor of a culling of their alternate selves across the Omniverse.  Whatever the case, the other divergent Kang, dubbed Kang #123488.23497 materialized in the realm of the Council of Cross-Time Kangs. There he stopped one of the Cross-Time Kang's trying to assassinate him. He was then teleported to the council chambers by a female Kang calling herself Kang Nebula.  Kang soon found himself universally accepted into the Council of Cross-Time Kangs.  He met with Lord Kang ruler of the Cross-Time Kangs who was impressed by his performance. He was then shown to his new quarters by Kang Nebula who earned Kang's suspicions when she tried to seduce him.  Kang began monitoring Kang-Nebula learning that she was secretly sneaking off to Earth-616 to manipulate the Avengers through their leader Dr. Druid. 
Confronted by Lord Kang over what he might know about the disappearance of Kang Nebula, the true Kang revealed what he knew. After examining her room Kang and the others discovered that Nebula had managed to seduce and steal technology from each member of the Council for her own use.  After confirming this by questioning the rest of the Council, Lord Kang suspected that Nebula might be going after the Avengers as they were destined to breach the so-called Time-Bubble that exists in a fifteen year span of time in the reality of Earth-8810. It was believed that a powerful Celestial weapon. This was later confirmed when they reviewed events on Earth-616 and learned that Nebula has successfully enthralled Dr. Druid, Thor, Black Knight and She-Hulk. Lord Kang decided to stop Nebula from breaching the Time Bubble and took the true Kang and Kang-Mesozoic24 with him to Earth-616. They managed to stow themselves on the side of the Avengers Quinjet from its launch site at Hydrobase and hitched a ride to the Time Bubble.  Although they lost Kang-Mesozoic24, Lord Kang and the true Kang prevented the death of the Black Knight and freed She-Hulk from Nebula's control. She-Hulk then freed Thor and the Knight from Nebula's control. In the ensuing struggle, both Nebula and Dr. Druid were lost in the Time Bubble. Both Kangs were lost in the probability field of the Time Bubble. 
When N'Astirh a demon realm of Limbo (not to be confused by the temporal one) attempted to spread his realm onto Earth, it had an impact on the time-stream and threatened to erase this Kang from existence. Only able to enter the modern age as a temporal specter, Kang attempted to find the Avengers in the demonically possessed version of New York City that was being called the Inferno. Unable to find them he instead found the Captain, Mr. Fantastic, the Invisible Woman, and the Eternal known as the Gilgamesh battling Nanny and the Orphan-Maker who were attempting to kidnap Reed and Sue's son Franklin Richards. Although the heroes defeated Nanny and Orphan-Maker, Franklin was kidnapped by N'Astirth to used in the magical sacrifice needed to permanently open the portal between Earth and Limbo. Seeing that they had no means of tracking N'Astirh, Kang used the last of his power to revive one of his Growing Man constructs hidden in the city. Under his orders it disguised itself as a demon and lured the ad-hoc group of Avengers, later joined by Thor, to the Empire State Building, headquarters of N'Astirh and his demonic legions. The Avengers rescued Franklin and foiled N'Astirh's plans for the time being, they also destroyed the "demon" that led them there as well. 
Meanwhile, the Prime Kang attempted to heal his apparent loss of Ravonna by bringing numerous alternate reality Ravonna's to slave over him, but soon he grew not to care about her any longer. He then decided to turn his energies against the first woman who betrayed him: Mantis.  Confident that the Inferno would cover his reappearance in the time stream from the Council of Cross-Time Kangs, attacked Mantis in New York City just as she was being rescued by the Fantastic Four. Immobilizing the Fantastic Four he kidnapped Mantis hoping to use her power as the Celestial Madonna to unleash the power of the Dreaming Celestial slumbering in Mount Diablo, California. Not only did the Fantastic Four follow after him, but as did the sorcerer known as Necrodamus. When Kang arrived in California, he was shocked to find that Mantis was stripped of her powers gained from the Cotati and began pondering how to breach the barrier when the Fantastic Four arrived. Kang managed to escape the Fantastic Four but upon doing so he realized that someone had kidnapped Mantis.  Kang managed to track Mantis back to New York City where he found her a prisoner of Necrodamus who was preparing to sacrifice her to the demons of Limbo once the planets became aligned. Forced to team-up with the Fantastic Four to suit his own ends for Mantis, he accepted an idea provided to him by Ms. Marvel. With the Human Torch's flame powers being mystically enhanced, Kang transported the Torch outside of the orbit of planet Mercury. The Torch then buried a device deem into the planet, allowing Kang to pull the planet slightly out of alignment preventing Necrodamus from slaying Mantis. The dark gods then punished Necrodamus. With their mission over, Kang teleported away leaving the Torch stranded in space.  While Kang was gone the heroic X-Men and X-Factor ended the demonic infestation of New York. 
Knowing that Mantis sought the Fantastic Four's aid to recover her son from the Cotati, Kang went to warn them. They agreed with him that the only means to prevent her from taking their savior was to kill her. Kang brought the elders of the Cotati to New York and summoned the Priests of Pama to help. However when they arrived, the Fantastic Four were reunited with the Torch thanks to the Silver Surfer and they defended Mantis, defeating the Cotati and their priests. When Mantis forced the Cotati to flee with her superior mental powers, Kang fled back into the timestream once more. Following this, Mantis left her physical body to try and convince the Cotati to release her son in on the mental plane. 
Powers and AbilitiesEdit
Anti-Aging: Kang is over 70 years old chronologically, but has managed to stop his aging completely using his far-flung futuristic technology. Thus he appears to be a man in his mid-40s.
|Power Grid |
|* Teleporter; Other stats' enhanced ratings due to armor|
As Kang: Superior-level Intellect: Though it is hard to gauge Kang's intellect given his futuristic origins, his genius is nothing short of super-human by modern standards. He commands technology beyond the most sophisticated designs of Stark Industries and Doctor Doom, and has made breakthroughs in time travel and robotics. Kang is the only known time traveler (other than his counterpart Immortus) who has the ability to travel through time without creating divergences.
Political Savvy Kang is a brilliant military tactician and a peerless general. Using his considerable charisma, Kang was able to raise an army and conqueror his first world within weeks of building his armor. He has conquered everything within 100 light years from Other Earth, including the counterpart Badoon and Shi'ar empires of his reality. Though he considers it a chore, Kang is also a capable statesman.
Skilled Combatant: Kang is a master of both armed and unarmed combat. He has managed to go toe-to-toe with Captain America, and single handedly held back Immortus's time-tossed army for several minutes during the Destiny War.
Indomitable Will: Through sheer force of will, Kang managed to separate himself from his future counterpart Immortus. Kang is absolutely fearless, and will stop at nothing to accomplish his own goals.
- Battle Armor: Kang's battle armor is produced from a rare synthetic alloy from the 40th century. It is neuro-kinetic, meaning it responds to his subconscious thoughts. Though Kang has no powers, his armor endows him with rough equivalents of super-human abilities.
- Enhanced Strength: Gives Kang the ability to lift 5 tons.
- Durability: The armor has a built in force-field that extends from 2 feet away from his body, outward to 20 feet in all directions. It can withstand even a nuclear strike at point blank range.
- Anti-Gravity Device: Kang has a device in the gauntlets of his armor that allows him to render objects weighing up to 2.2 tons weightless.
- Video Communicator: Built into the right wrist is a video communicator, which he can use to stay in contact with his bases from any point in the time-stream.
- Time Travel: Kang's armor can create temporal divergences, giving him the ability to travel through and manipulate time.
- Concussive Bolts: Kang can fire concussive blasts from the finger tips of his gauntlets; these blasts have the force of several tons of dynamite.
- Weaponry: By cracking his fingers, Kang can summon any number of weapons which are transported to him through time-stream instantly.
- Electric Shock: By flexing his muscles, Kang can activate a powerful electric shock.
- Hover Pad: Kang has often made use of a hover-pad in his battles.
- Survival Kit: Kang's armor has a self-contained atmosphere, 30 day supply of food, and waste disposal system.
- Body Transference: Until recently, Kang employed nano-technology in his helmet's circuitry that enabled him to transfer his mind into a new body at the moment of death.
- Kang's Light of the Centuries Sphere: a sphere that can transport people trough space and time. It also can hold people captured in itself.
- Kang's Time Scanner
He typically carries various weapons, such as an anti-matter defense screen generator, a "vibration-ray" projector, an electromagnetic field amplifier, neutrino-ray warheaded missile launcher (hand-gun size), electrical paralysis generator, nerve gas sprayer and a molecular expander. He commands a vast array of warriors from across all periods of time, including his own future era, armed with advanced weaponry. He used numerous robots, most notably his Growing Man stimuloids, packed with the "Growth Pollen" of the world Kosmos, which causes them to grow in size and strength by absorbing kinetic energy; this Growth Pollen uses the same energy accessed via the size-changing "Pym Particles" discovered by Dr Hank Pym.
- 169 Appearances of Nathaniel Richards (Kang) (Earth-6311)
- Media Nathaniel Richards (Kang) (Earth-6311) was Mentioned in
- 28 Images featuring Nathaniel Richards (Kang) (Earth-6311)
- 13 Quotations by or about Nathaniel Richards (Kang) (Earth-6311)
- Character Gallery: Nathaniel Richards (Kang) (Earth-6311)
- Fan-Art Gallery: Nathaniel Richards (Kang) (Earth-6311)
- Marvel Directory
- A Brief History of Kang (Does not cover Avengers Forever or later)
Discover and Discuss
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- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol . #6
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Avengers #269
- ↑ Fantastic Four #273
- ↑ What If? Vol 2 #39
- ↑ Young Avengers #2
- ↑ Fantastic Four #19
- ↑ 'Fantastic Four Annual #2'Captain America Annual #11. It is later revealed in Avengers #269 that the frequent time storms that thwarted Kang were created by his future self, Immortus as per Avengers #269 in part of a complex plan to curtail possible divergent realities created by Kang's time travels.
- ↑ Avengers Annual #2
- ↑ What If? Vol 2 #29
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Captain America Annual #11
- ↑ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 Avengers #8
- ↑ 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 Avengers: Forever #9
- ↑ 1939 Daily Bugle #1
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Avengers #129
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #4
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Captain America: Man Out of Time #4
- ↑ Captain America: Man Out of Time #4. As revealed in Avengers #4, Captain America ended up in suspended animation during World War II and at the time was just recently revived in the modern era.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Captain America: Man Out of Time #5
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 Avengers #267
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 Avengers Annual #21
- ↑ Thor Annual #17. Immortus first openly clashed with the Avengers in Avengers #10 although as the Avengers: Forever series revealed, he had been manipulating the group as early as Avengers #2. Kang did not learn that Immmortus was his future self until Giant-Size Avengers #3
- ↑ Avengers #11
- ↑ 23.00 23.01 23.02 23.03 23.04 23.05 23.06 23.07 23.08 23.09 23.10 23.11 23.12 23.13 Thor Annual #17
- ↑ Strange Tales #134
- ↑ Avengers #16
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Fantastic Four Annual #3
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Marvel: Heroes & Legends #1
- ↑ Thunderbolts #13
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 Thor #140
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Avengers #24
- ↑ Avengers #23
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Avengers #69
- ↑ 'Avengers #269'Avengers: Forever #9. This was revealed to be another manipulation by Immortus to try and rein in Kang, eliminate all his divergences and ensure that Immortus was the final fate of Nathaniel Richards as revealed in Avengers #269
- ↑ Avengers #69. Tony Stark suffered a heart attack battling an Iron Man Life Model Decoy in Iron Man #18 and was rushed to the hospital in Avengers #69. At the time, Iron Man's true identity was a secret even to his fellow Avengers. Stark under went surgery and recovered in Iron Man #19
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 Avengers #71
- ↑ Avengers #70
- ↑ This was hinted at in Fantastic Four Annual #25, inferred in Avengers Annual #21 and clarified more thoroughly in Avengers: Forever #9.
- ↑ Incredible Hulk #135
- ↑ 39.00 39.01 39.02 39.03 39.04 39.05 39.06 39.07 39.08 39.09 39.10 39.11 39.12 Fantastic Four Annual #25
- ↑ Marvel Team-Up #9
- ↑ Marvel Team-Up #10
- ↑ Marvel Team-Up #11
- ↑ Avengers #128
- ↑ Avengers #129. The Rama-Tut seen here is not the younger version of Kang who battled the Fantastic Four in Fantastic Four #19, but a future version of Kang himself as revealed in Giant-Size Avengers #2
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Giant-Size Avengers #2
- ↑ Giant-Size Avengers #2. Hawkeye quit the Avengers at the time in Avengers #109
- ↑ Avengers #131. It was later revealed in Avengers: Forever #8 that this was all part of a plot by Immortus to have the Avengers learn the connection between the original Human Torch and the Vision to further manipulate their destinies as he saw fit. All the characters were plucked from just moments from their apparent deaths. Wonder Man was pulled from Avengers #9, however it was later revealed in Avengers #152 that he was merely in a state of suspended animation. The Human Torch was not technically dead, but rather deactivated circa 1955 as revealed in Fantastic Four Annual #4. The Torch's life and resurrections are quite complicated but are explained in Avengers: Forever #8. The Ghost was slain in Silver Surfer #9. Midnight was slain in Special Marvel Edition #16 at the hands of Shang-Chi however he was later resurrected in Silver Surfer Vol 3 #29. Baron Zemo was slain battling Captain America in Avengers #15. The Frankenstein Monster was technically not dead, but was snatched from time during the events of Frankenstein #12
- ↑ Avengers #132
- ↑ Giant-Size Avengers #3
- ↑ Revealed in Avengers #134 & 135. This also was part of his complex plot to manipulate the destiny of the Avengers as seen in Avengers: Forever #8
- ↑ Giant-Size Avengers #4
- ↑ 52.0 52.1 Avengers: Forever #6
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 53.2 Avengers #142
- ↑ Avengers: Forever #4
- ↑ Avengers: Forever #5. The Avengers who appeared here are from different points in history and were gathered by Rick Jones in Avengers: Forever #1 to stop Immortus and his masters the Time-Keepers from eliminating various alternate realities. This also put them in an uneasy alliance with a Kang from a number of decades in his personal future from this moment. For clarity it should be pointed out that Yellowjacket was taken circa Avengers #59, Hawkeye was plucked from Avengers #99, a Hawkeye from the past prior to the encounter with Kang listed directly above that occurred in Avengers #142. Songbird comes from a possible future on Earth-98120 where she joined the Avengers. Both Yellowjacket and Hawkeye will not remember any of these events following the climax of Avengers: Forever as their memories faded as revealed in Avengers: Forever #12. Thus neither character remembers this encounter after the fact. Also Kang does not recognize either Hawkeye or Yellowjacket despite having met them both previously. It should be assumed that Kang did not recognize them due to their disguises.
- ↑ Avengers #141
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 Avengers #143
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 Avengers: Forever #8
- ↑ This world appears in Incredible Hulk #286, however it was not revealed that Kang-8386 was slain by the Council of Kangs until a profile for Hero of the Day in World War Hulk: Gamma Files #1
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #4
- ↑ Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #1
- ↑ Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #2
- ↑ Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #6
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #3
- ↑ 65.0 65.1 Thor #383
- ↑ As seen in Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #4 through 10
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #11
- ↑ As seen in Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #11 and 12
- ↑ Secret Wars II #1
- ↑ Secret Wars II #6
- ↑ Secret Wars II #7
- ↑ Secret Wars II #9
- ↑ Avengers #268
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 Avengers #292
- ↑ 75.0 75.1 Avengers #293
- ↑ Avengers #291. Although Kang Nebula was intended to be the space pirate Nebula, it was later revealed in Avengers Annual #21 revealed that she was really Ravonna in disguise.
- ↑ Avengers #294
- ↑ Avengers #295
- ↑ Avengers #296
- ↑ Avengers #297
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #239
- ↑ Avengers #300
- ↑ Fantastic Four #323, Mantis lost her powers during the events of West Coast Avengers Vol 2 #37 through 39
- ↑ Fantastic Four #324
- ↑ X-Factor #38
- ↑ Fantastic Four #325
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z hardcover Vol. 6
- ↑ Avengers Vol 1 69
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