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Winter Soldier Vol 1 1 Gabriele Dell'otto Variant Textless

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Preface

The history of James Buchanan Barnes spans some 70 years of publications. Below is an unabridged accounting of his history. For the abridged version see the Abriged History of James Buchanan Barnes

Order of Appearance: Wherever possible, all orders of Bucky's appearances over his 70 year history has been cross referenced with the Avengers, Thor & Captain America: Official Index to the Marvel Universe Vol 1.

Regarding 1940s Publications: It has been revealed[1] that a number of Bucky's wartime adventures were actual comic book adaptations published as wartime propaganda, particularly this adventures with the Young Allies but they are based on actual facts despite obvious embellishments and artistic license on the part of the comic book creators.


Early Life

Born in 1925, James Buchanan Barnes lost both his parents early in his life; his mother had died when he was a child and his father had died in an accident while in basic training at Camp Lehigh shortly before Christmas in 1937. He was separated from his younger sister Rebecca, who was sent to boarding school while he persuaded officials into letting him remain at camp Lehigh as a ward of the state as he shared his father's love of the armed forces. Tragically, James' father died in a parachuting exercise, cementing a long standing fear of heights in the boy[2].

World War II

1941

James Buchanan Barnes (Earth-616) 0001

James Barnes as Bucky, circa World War II

However by the time he was a teenager, James became to be a delinquent, regularly starting fights around camp[3], and began a profitable business smuggling in contraband[2]. It gotten to the point where everyone looked the other way until the night of James' 16th birthday when he managed to get drunk at the enlisted club and got into a fight, knocking out two sailors and breaking the wrist of an MP. Following this incident, his fathers friend Major Samson decided it was best to ship James off to England for special combat training[4]. There he spent months training under the United States military and the British S.A.S.[3]. The intent was to groom James into the ideal soldier and a month later he was brought back to the United States to become the partner to the recently empowered Captain America. The implicit purpose of Bucky was to be not only a counter to the Hitler Youth in Nazi Germany, but also to be a covert agent to carry out darker parts of missions that would otherwise tarnish the symbolic nature of Captain America's character[5]. While other accounts have stated that James stumbled upon Captain America's secret identity of Steve Rogers by accident and convinced him to be his sidekick[6][2], and had to get clearance from the military[7], it has been revealed that this was merely a media cover story to add a "family friendly" context to the Captain America origin story to placate the American people[3]. James became Captain America's partner Bucky[6][8][9] and participated in the majority of Captain America's adventures throughout World War II. One of Bucky's first missions with Captain America was stopping Nazi saboteurs from destroying a train. For their success, they were thanks personally by President Franklin Roosevelt. Bucky was left behind when the Sub-Mariner later kidnapped the President forcing Captain America to go after him and rescue Roosevelt[10].

Bucky's first few adventures with Captain America would include clashing with phony fortune tellers Sando and Omar, Nazi assassin Rathcone and George Maxon who was then posing as the Red Skull. During this period they also became friends with Betty Ross of the FBI who became a regular ally[6]. Bucky also joined Captain America in battling Benson and his Oriental Giants, rescued millionaire Henry Baldwin from Nazi Germany while clashing with Hitler and Hermann Goering, and had a close call with death when thwarting the Wax Man[11]. Maxon returned again as the Red Skull and attempted to slay Cap and Bucky but failed in doing so costing him his life. Later, Bucky helped Captain America expose actor Craig Talbot as a Nazi sympathizer, and then needed rescuing from his mentor when he was captured by the Butterfly[12]. Bucky next helped Cap expose the Unholy Legion, stopped some counterfeiters, and was imperilled by Dr. Grimm and his creations before being saved by Cap once again[13].

During this time, Bucky had also helped found the Sentinels of Liberty fan club, a youth group that endorsed patriotism and support of the United States during the war. The United States government used the group to found the Young Allies which consisted of Bucky, the Human Torch's sidekick Toro, Patrick "Knuckles" O'Toole, Geoffrey "Jeff" Vandergill, Henry "Tubby" Tinkelbaum, and Washington "Wash" Jones. Their adventures were adapted into a comic book published by Timely Comics, but the members of the Allies had their names altered, likenesses overly dramatized (and not in the most flattering ways in some cases) and the stories embellished. The intent was to publish propaganda to encourage youth to support the war[1]. Their first recorded adventure together involved being chased across the globe protecting a British spy from the true Red Skull. Trapped in China they were rescued by Captain America and the Human Torch[14].

When Captain America learned that George Maxon was not the real Red Skull, he and Bucky smuggled themselves into Nazi Germany to confront the real Skull and were captured[15]. With Captain America exposed to a serum that made him the Skull's slave, Bucky broke out of his cell and posed as a Nazi soldier to follow Cap on his mission to assassinate an American military official in London[16]. Bucky's pleas to Cap to helped snap him out of the Skull's control of Captain America who then -- with Bucky's help -- rounded up the Nazi soldiers. They were then dispatched to a local army base where they thwarted Wolfgang, an escaped Prisoner of War, from utilizing a new experimental "Vanishing Ray"[17]. Bucky was later put on guard duty in the Bowery with Steve, and assisted him in stopping Nazi agent the Lord of Death and his army of homeless Zombies[18]. Returning to Camp Lehigh, Bucky helped Captain America stop the original Ringmaster and his Circus of Crime, destroyed the Imperial Japanese super-sub the Dragon of Death in Hawaii, led the Sentinels of Liberty to track down a Nazi Bund which Cap later shut down. Later Bucky accompanied Cap to the French controlled Devil's Island where they saved Steve's friend Tom Jason from his torturous jailer Pepo Laroc[19]. Returning to the United States, Bucky assisted Captain America in incarcerating Nazi agent known as the Creeper[20].

Further adventures included assisting Captain America in preventing the theft of the British Royal jewels by the Camera Fiend, rescuing a Chinese ambassador from Japanese agent the Fang in San Francisco, recovering a super-silk formula from the Hangman[21], defending Camp Lehigh from the Red Skull, protecting the Brooklyn Badgers baseball franchise from the Black Toad, and stopping the murder spree of the Nazi assassin known as the Fiddler[22]. While escorting documents over to Singapore, Bucky and Captain America's plane shot down over the Malay Archipelago where they prevented Nazi spy Kurt Mueller and his slaves of the Dhaka Tribe from obtaining the plans[23]. Later, Bucky joined Captain America in protecting the Ruby of the Nile from Ra the Avenger, exposed supposed French freedom fighter Pierre Dumort as a Nazi operative, and protected heiress Karin Lee from the Black Witch[24]. Subsequently, Bucky also aided Captain America in exposing the identity of the White Death, stopped death row defying criminal Nick Pinto from escaping execution, and foiled two insane artists the Black Talon[25] and the Mad Painter[26].

During his next meeting with the Young Allies, Bucky and the other young men assisted Dora Livingstone in locating her missing father Martin, a famous explorer. Locating him on an island dubbed New America, Bucky and the Young Allies defended it from Nazis led by the Black Talon and liberated it with an assist from Captain America and the Human Torch[27]. Back at Captain America's side, Bucky also helped stopped Countess Mara from stealing a rapid fire grenade launcher for the Nazis, rescued Captain America from Net-Man in Gotham City, and helped Cap expose the true identity of the Hound of Cardiff Moor[28].

In November of 1941, Captain America and Bucky were dispatched along with a troop of soldiers into Africa. Part of their mission was to attack Nazi forces there and accept the surrender of Nazi defector Major Hans Guettzer to the United States military. Unknown to all, Bucky was really in command of the mission and that he had secret orders to local and assassinate high ranking Nazi official Baron Strucker. Unfortunately, their plane ran out of fuel forcing them to crash land and their forces were pinned down by Nazi soldiers. They were then rescued by a team of British S.A.S. led by American soldier Nick Fury and were also joined by the Canadian adventurer known as Logan whom, unknown to all was ordered by his employers to learn what he could about Captain America[29]. Logan earned Bucky's ire when he took Captain America's previous offer to partner up, and soon Fury revealed to Cap the full scope of their mission in Djbera including Bucky's side mission. While Captain America led his forces to attack the Nazi camp and effect the surrender of Hans Guettzer, Bucky slipped away to complete his part of the mission, with Captain America and Logan following after him[30]. Bucky discovered that Baron Strucker was forming his own organization a terrorist cell known as Hydra and was captured. Brought before a group of Hydra agents by a man who appeared to be Baron Strucker, Bucky seemingly slew Strucker. However, when he was saved by Fury, Logan, Cap and the S.A.S. it became clear that he only killed a man posing as Strucker. Pairing with Logan to search for Strucker, Bucky told Logan about Captain America's origins taking pleasure with the need to kill the Canadian mutant after telling him a classified secret. Logan however managed to knock the youth out[31]. Bucky feigned unconsciousness and overheard Logan's objectives to not only keep Strucker alive, but to help him escape. Bucky revived and pretended not to have heard the entire conversation but later as they flew out of the region with Strucker as their prisoner attempted to warn Cap. This came too late as their plane was soon shot down and Strucker and Logan were recovered by Baron Zemo. Recovering from the crash, Bucky laid down cover fire, striking Logan in the chest -- ending a fight with Captain America -- and forcing the Nazis to flee. With their mission a failure, Bucky and Captain America left Logan to die in the desert, however Logan would survive and live to clash with Bucky again in the future[32].

Returning to Camp Lehigh, Bucky helped Captain America expose Nazi agents posing as American soldiers, was framed and cleared for murder when implicated in a plot by George Brenner to incite a family feud between the Rand and Codger families thanks to Captain America, helped capture the jealous actor Jacques Laval who murdered a fellow actor for the love of Lilly Renard[33] and also assisted in stopping rabble rouser and Nazi agent known as the Reaper[34]. Later while helping Captain America in guarding a defence factory, Bucky and his mentor failed to stop Nazi agent the Teutonic Knight from stealing plans for an military airship dubbed the "Flying Arsenal"[35]. They were more successful in capturing Dr. Crime who utilized a size changing formula, preventing Oroccan mercenary Rozzo from assassinating the visiting Oroccan president[36], and stopping Japanese spy Mysto the Magician while they were stationed overseas[37].

As the winter months were coming to a close, Bucky accompanied Captain America to investigate a meeting between Nazi spies in America and the Atlantean traitor known as U-Man. Attacking the meeting, the pair were assisted by the costumed hero known as the Angel. While U-Man managed to escape, Cap and Bucky captured an Atlantean soldier and took him back to Washington D.C. for interrogation[3]. With the information taken from the Atlantean soldier, on December 7th 1941 the same day as the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Bucky joined Captain America and the Sub-Mariner in thwarting a second attack by a rogue faction of Atlantean warriors loyal to U-Man on behalf of the Nazis. Not only did Bucky assist in turning back the attack force, but also ensured that it did not become publicly known[38].

On December 22nd following Americas declaration of war against the Axis forces, Bucky joined Captain America in preventing an act of sabotage at the Liberty Shipyards. Afterword the pair are rushed to a nearby hospital by the FBI, as Dr. Anderson -- one of the scientists involved in Operation Rebirth -- was critically shot. He explained to Cap and Bucky that he was forced to use his knowledge to help empower a Nazi agent known as Master Man with a Super Soldier Serum derivative. Learning that Master Man intends to attack the vessel bringing British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to America to meet with President Roosevelt, Bucky joined Captain America, the Human Torch, Toro and the Sub-Mariner in opposing him. They succeed in defeating Master Man, and Churchill suggested that they continue working together and dubbed them the Invaders[39]. Shortly after this, President Roosevelt officially sanctioned the team[38]. Bucky accompanied the Invaders to England to investigate the Nazi scientist responsible for Master Man who was known only as Brain Drain. Arriving in London the group thwarted a German air raid and rescued a strange woman named Hilda, who bore a strange ring. Hilda, led the heroes to Nazi Germany where they clashed with three men claiming to be Teutonic gods Donar, Froh and Loga[40]. They were eventually revealed to be aliens of the Tekeli-Li race who had been enslaved by Brain Drain who sought to exploit their technology. Hilda and her comrades sacrificed their lives to destroy Brain Drain and his technology while the Invaders fled the scene[41].

1942

Returning to the Untied States, Bucky joined the Invaders in intercepting a Nazi U-Boat and recovered a coded message. Handing it over to the military they learn that the U-Man intended to attack Winston Churchill on his return to the United Kingdom. This angers Namor who wishes to deal with the traitor alone, but the other Invaders attempted to stop him. Bucky, sympathetic to Namor's plight helped him escape in his craft[42]. The two were later joined by the rest of the Invaders who help them fight off U-Man, saving Churchill and Namor's reporter friend Betty Dean[43]. Later, when the Torch and Toro went missing on a mission in the Swiss Alps, Bucky accompanied Captain America and Namor to search for them. They soon learned that their allies had been captured by Basil Frankenstein and rescued them, while also destroying the mad scientists Nazi Frankenstein's Monster[44]. Returning to the US at Captain America's side, Bucky helped stop the League of Unicrons from assassinating Chinese royal Prince Tsaihoon, and stopped modern day pirate the Looter[45]. Bucky then rejoined the Young Allies in helping the US military thwart an invasion of Alaska by Japanese forces under the command of Khan[46].

Participating in a war bond parade with the other Invaders, Bucky and his teammates were attacked by the Red Skull, resulting in the team being captured. The Skull decided to leave Bucky behind, believing that the boy was no threat due to his lack of powers[47]. This proved to be the Red Skull's undoing, as Bucky then gathered another group of heroes, including the Patriot, Miss America, Whizzer, Thin Man, Red Raven, Jack Frost, and the Blue Diamond forming a new group of heroes known as the Liberty Legion. Bucky led the Legion on a mission to stop various Nazi saboteurs[48]. When the Red Skull learned of the Liberty Legion's formation he sent the Invaders out to destroy American monuments but the Legion, under Bucky's leadership, managed to thwart this plot[49]. After capturing his friend Toro, Bucky and the Legion clashed against the enthralled Invaders at Yankees Stadium until Toro shook off the effects of his mind control and destroyed the air-ship that kept Captain America and the others under the Red Skull's control, freeing them and thwarting the Skull's plot. With the Invaders back under their own free will Bucky left the Liberty Legion to rejoin them and Captain America, entrusting the Legion to defend the United States whenever they were absent[50].

Returning to England with the Invaders, Bucky clashed with Baron Blood and met the Falsworth family, Jacqueline, Lord Montgomery (who was the original Union Jack during World War I) and John (who was secretly Baron Blood)[51]. Bucky joined the Invaders and Lord Falsworth (taking his Union Jack identity out of retirement) on a fruitless hunt to stop Baron Blood[52]. Ultimately, Bucky and the other Invaders managed to slay the Baron by impaling him through the chest with a stalagmite in a cave, although Jacqueline was seriously drained of blood in the process[53]. Bucky accompanied the Invaders to a hospital to get Jacqueline medical attention[54] where he helped his comrades in a clash with the Blue Bullet while the Torch revived Jacqueline with a blood transfusion that gained her super-human speed. She then joined the team as Spitfire[55]. Promising Blue Bullet inventor John Gold to rescue his brother Jacob Goldstein from the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw, Poland, Bucky joined the Invaders in travelling into the ghettos to liberate Jacob only to be captured by the Nazis[56]. Prisoners of Nazi commander known as the Face, Bucky and the others were rescued by Goldstein who managed to transform himself into the Golem of Jewish myth[57]. Returning to London, Bucky and the Invaders were upstaged by a new team of heroes known as the Crusaders who took the Invader's place as security for the King of England during the christening of a new battleship[58]. However it was quickly revealed that the Crusader's backer, Alfie was really a Nazi spy and the Invaders help expose this truth and save the King with the Crusaders assistance[59]. Bucky and Toro were briefly ordered to stay behind at the Invaders new home base within Big Ben while Captain America, the Human Torch and Sub-Mariner were sent on a mission to capture three Nazi operatives[60].

Following this mission, Bucky joined Captain America and the Sub-Mariner in investigating a sighting of the Red Skull and Baron Strucker along the German countryside. What they found were the remains of a sacrifice carried out by the Thule Society using Atlanteans as sacrifices. Learning that what the Skull had summoned landed in Antarctica, Bucky accompanied Cap and Namor there where they clashed with a massive creature, killing it in an explosion while the Red Skull and Baron Strucker seemingly escaped with what they sought. Bucky and the others left not knowing that the Red Skull succeeded in summoning the Hammer of Skadi, a weapon that would plague them all decades later[61]. Joining Captain America to the Mojave Desert, he aided Cap in stopping Japanese agent the Vulture, and at Camp Lehigh stopped the assassin calling himself the Yellow Claw[62]. Returning to England, Bucky and Steve failed to stop the capture of Private Biljo White, creator of the Major Victory comic book. Noting that the title character in the comic book shared a similar origin to Captain America, the Invaders tracked White to Nazi Germany to Hitler's stronghold in the hopes of preventing the Nazis from potentially recreating the Super Soldier Serum. There Bucky and the others were overpowered and captured by a revived Master Man[63]. The Nazis only briefly replicated the process, transforming Julia Koenig into Warrior Woman, who easily trounced the Invaders, leaving Captain America for dead[64]. Adolf Hitler then ordered the "surviving" Invaders transported to Berlin to be executed following the wedding of Master Man and Warrior Woman[65]. Captain America in truth survived and with the aid of the Destroyer, Spitfire and Dyna-Mite attempt to rescue Bucky and the others. The plan failed and Cap and Spitfire were also captured. Put before a firing squad, the entire team was almost gunned down when they are saved at the last minute by the Destroyer who had then taken on his fathers former identity as the new Union Jack[66]. During the subsequent battle, Bucky and the Invaders defeated Master Man and Warrior Woman[67], and recovered Captain America's shield before Hitler could escape with it. Fleeing in a bomber, they were forced to splash dive in the Channel[68]. They were recovered by the British Navy, and with Toro seriously injured they were rushed to a hospital where Bucky and the others learned of Toro's origins[69].

After Toro under went surgery, the doctors told the Invaders that the only man who could possibly save Toro was a Japanese-American doctor named Hijiri Sabuki who was living in California. With the Invaders needed on another mission in Egypt, Bucky agreeed to take Toro to get help alone[70]. Arriving at Sabuki's home, Bucky learns that the doctor -- like many Japanese-Americans during the war -- was taken from his home and placed in a relocation camp under suspicion of being a spy[71]. Turning Toro over to a nearby hospital, Bucky was told by a nurse that Dr. Sabuki has been placed at the relocation center at Sandy Flat. Rushing there, Bucky meet with the commanding officer Commander Simms. When Simms racist views caused Bucky to lose his temper, he stormed through the relocation camp to search for Sabuki without authorization. Finding Sabuki with his daughter Gwendolyne he convinced the doctor to aid him. However, before they could break out of the camp, they were ambushed and overpowered by minions of Agent Axis who sought to force Dr. Sabuki to separate the three minds trapped in his body[72]. Learning that Toro was in a nearby hospital, Agent Axis captured Toro and hospital assistant Davey Mitchell and took them to his hideout. Instead of curing Agent Axis, Sabuki healed Toro and endowed Gwendolyn and Davey with super-human abilities to fight off Agent Axis. As a battle with Agent Axis began to break out, the Invaders (having tracked Bucky) smashed through the room to lend a hand[73]. Bucky and his new young friends assisted the Invaders in capturing Agent Axis. Deciding to band together as the Kid Commandos, Bucky and the other youths convinced Commander Simms that Gwendolyn (now calling herself Golden Girl) posed no threat to national security[74].

Returning to solo adventures with Captain America, Bucky assisted Cap, Nick Fury and the Howling Commandos in preventing the Nazis from digging a tunnel from France to England to spring an invasion[75][76][77][78]. Bucky also helped Captain America stop two similar plots to demoralize the American people with fantastic invasions. The first perpetuated by Nazi agent Fritz Krone creating an invasion of "Earth-Men" from under New York City, and the second by Nazi agents inspired by Orson Wells reading of War of the Worlds to stage a mock Martian invasion of Gotham City[79]. Later, Bucky and Captain America clashed with the Japanese assassin known as the Vampire[80]. Bucky then helped Captain America and Betty Ross end the Legion of the Devil's occupation of the town of Valley Ridge. When the Red Skull returned, he managed to injure Bucky with an arrow to the shoulder. While Bucky recuperated in hospital, the Skull captured Captain America and began committing crimes disguised as the hero. Knowing the truth, Bucky found Cap and rescued him and the pair clashed with the Red Skull. The battle ended when the Skull fall off a plane to his seeming demise and Captain America was able to clear his name[81]. The Red Skull survived however, and resumed acts of sabotage. When a nearby battle ship was bombed, Bucky and the Young Allies came to the aid of the crew and rescued Betty Dean. Chasing after the Red Skull, they followed him to Washington D.C. and with the assistance of the Human Torch and Captain America foiled the Skull's plot to poison the population of the capital city. The battle ended when the Young Allies pushed the Skull off a cliff to his seeming demise[82].

Returning to the Kid Commandos, Bucky assisted them in breaking up a spy network attracting the attention of Japanese operative Lady Lotus. Taking an interest in Golden Girl, Lady Lotus sent U-Man to capture her leading to a clash with the Kid Commandos. Bucky and his comrades proved to be no match for the Atlantean warrior and were easily beaten[83]. The Invaders arrived but failed to stop U-Man from escaping with Golden Girl. Bucky, Toro and the Top joined the Invaders in tracking down Golden Girl to Lady Lotus's hideout. After saving their teammate, a joyous Bucky hugged Golden Girl, embarrassing her and creating jealousy within Toro who was developing feelings for their female comrade[84]. Shortly thereafter Bucky joined the Kid Commandos on a war bond drive[85]. Next, Bucky and Captain America viewed some newsreel footage of one of their major wartime battles, noting the sensationalism and complete disregard of the death of a soldier from Iowa who died in battle[86].

Back with Captain America on solo missions, Bucky next faced the ape-bodied Killer Kole, prevented Nazi agent the Spook from sparking a war between the United States and the Sub-Earth Men, and stopped mad scientist Professor Clement Mott from destroying the Earth with his Cosmic Depressor device[87]. While posing as a pin boy, Bucky helped Captain America to expose a conspiracy to usurp the United States government by the Holy Ring cult who were operating out of a nearby bowling alley, then found themselves deployed to Egypt where they assisted Professor Wimbley on a dig of a nearby pyramid[88]. Bucky was later present when Captain America met with the newly formed Specialized Unit, Enhanced Soldiers (Also known as the Crazy SUES)[89]. Bucky also joined Captain America, Sub-Mariner, Human Torch, Toro, the Vision, the Destroyer, Black Widow, Black Avenger, Blazing Skull and Black Marvel in invading a Nazi stronghold in Europe[90]. Returning to the United States, Bucky joined the Invaders in defending the Brooklyn shipyards from what appeared to be an attack by the briefly time displaced Thor Corps[91][92].

Bucky was next sent with Captain America to the California coast to stop an invasion of Japanese soldiers led by the so-called Mock Mikado[93], then traveled to Japan to rescued Betty Dean and destroy the Paw's massive cannon that could fire shells across the Pacific Ocean[88]. When the Young Allies were asked to appear in a movie about their adventures, Bucky and the other Young Allies took up the opportunity which led to the youths foiling the Owl's plan to assist in a Japanese invasion of America, with the assistance of Captain America and the Human Torch[94]. Later when Bucky and Steve were air dropped into the swamps of the southern United States they clashed with the Crocodile, and were later deployed to Nazi Germany to rescue the captured General Spencer from Nazi torture expert Herr Demon[95]. In London, Captain America and Bucky thwarted Dr. Destiny's experiments to transform people into massive "Clammy Things", while in Egypt they prevented the Spawn of the Witch Queen from resurrecting his mother, and in India, Captain America and Bucky stopped attacks on American troops by Japanese sympathizer the Fakir[96]. After stopping Dr. Crime and his Nazi allies[97], Bucky assisted Captain America in exposing the supposed return of the mystical Medusa as a hoax perpetuated by Nazi agent Anton Harvey[98].

On August 7, 1942 Bucky joined Captain America and the Crazy SUES on a mission to Guadalcanal where they clashed with Imperial Japanese forces[89]. Bucky next joined Captain America in leading American troops on an airdrop into the Swiss Alps to investigate intelligence reports that the Red Skull was developing Sleeper robots in the area[99]. Later learning that Baron Zemo was attempting to unleash his new Particle X device to quash Allied radio transmission, Captain America and Bucky destroyed the device with the assistance of Citizen V[100]. Shortly thereafter, Bucky assisted Captain America in preventing the Creeper from creation tensions between the United States and Alslavia, were tricked into battling the sorcerer Balthar by a demon calling himself Satan[20], and stopped the phony medium and Nazi spy Dr. Eternity[34].

Captain America and Bucky then became involved in the liberation of the Microverse world of Mita which was under the oppressive rule of the evil dictator Togaro[101]. During the course of this adventure Bucky developed an unrequited crush on the Mitan known as Ailma while they were captured by Togaro. Captain America and his Mitan allies later freed Bucky and Ailma and escaped to Earth although Mita and most of its people were slain, Captain America eventually slew Togaro ending his threat[102]. Shortly after the Mitan affair, Captain America and Bucky turned a potential Propaganda victory for Hans Stryker against him, with Bucky filming the Nazi's defeat[103]. Bucky later helped Steve clear his name for the murder of a high ranking military official by exposing the real killer, a Nazi agent known as the Ring[34]. Bucky and the Young Allies next stopped Nazi agent Professor Kraut and stopped Togo's "Comet of Doom"[104]. By October of that year, Bucky accompanied Captain America, the Human Torch and Toro to Shanghai, China, to help liberate young Chinese genius Zhang Chin[105]. Finding the boy, Bucky and the others managed to evade Japanese forces and get to the extraction point where the Sub-Mariner was waiting for them[106]. In early November, Bucky accompanied the Invaders onto the Russian front where they joined Russian forces led by Vasily Karpov. Participating in an attack on Nazi forces in the town of Kalach, they uncovered Master Man and the Red Skull hiding there with a new ray weapon. Outgunned, the Skull set the weapon to explode and fled with Master Man leaving Bucky and the others to save as many villagers as possible while the town burned to the ground[107]. Later Bucky was captured while in Nazi Germany and was rescued by Captain America[108].

1943

In the start of 1943, Bucky was with the Invaders assisting with the resistance movement in Poland. On the eve of his 18th birthday, their cover was blown when Toro wanted to prepare a surprise party for Bucky, leading to a clash with Master Man and Warrior Woman[4]. Back in the United States, Bucky assisted Captain America in foiling a Nazi operative calling himself Izan from replacing air raid wardens with spies, apprehended Turtle Man's criminal army hiding out a the Louisiana swamp, and foil an insurance fraud scheme created by phony mystic Prince Ba'rahm[109]. The duo later prevent a model prototype sub from reaching the clutched of Nazi agent known as the Eraser[110], battled the Vampire Count Varnis, and Nazi ship wrecker the Eel[111]. When Baron Blood next plagued Captain America, Bucky witnessed as Captain America was first bit, then turned into a Vampire. Before Cap could attack Bucky, he was cured by his fellow Invaders[112]. Dispatched to New Guinea, Buck also aided Captain America in stopping Japanese soldier Kuhomai from assassinating General Douglas MacArthur[113].

On January 7, 1943, Bucky accompanied Captain America to the New Yorker Hotel where they failed to stop Master Man from killing scientist Nikola Tesla. However, Bucky accompanied Captain America as he and Hilda Zemo travelled to the secret base of her husband, Baron Zemo. There they attempt to stop Zemo from combining Tesla's Teleray technology with his death ray device to destroy incoming Allied Bombers. Despite being betrayed by a young Heinrich Zemo, Bucky was saved by Captain America and they succeed in destroying the device, although it came at the cost at Hilda's life, earning Cap and Bucky the unending hatred of Zemo and his son[114].

Back in the United States, Bucky helped Captain America stop Karr the Mummy[101], traveled to the nation of Bonara with the Young Allies and thwarted attacks by Nazi agent the Ambassador of Terror and later helped the Young Allies destroy a secret tunnel that lead from China to the United States created by the Serpent[115]. Getting stranded on the Russian front with Captain America, Bucky helped his mentor expose a Nazi plot to use a battleship disguised as an iceberg to attack the military base at Murmansk[102]. Returning to the United States, Bucky helped Captain America defend Camp Lehigh from an attack by Nazi soldiers and their biologically engineered Killer Beasts[116]. Bucky later joined the Young Allies for a war bond drive in Los Angeles California at the Paramount Theater. The event was interrupted when a group of men attacked people waiting for the event. After breaking up the fight, the attackers snap out of their trances and did not recall what they had done. This puzzled the Allies, unaware that it is the work of Bucky's old foe Lady Lotus, and they carried on their bond rally[117]. After interrogating the men, Bucky and Toro realized that they were dealing with Lady Lotus attempting to shake public morale. When the Young Allies attempted to deal with her, the FBI demanded they follow their orders and report to Democracy Pictures to participate in a film to supporting the war effort. As they participated in the shoot, they were unaware that Lady Lotus has tracked them down and by using a crystal, created by the Celestials that amplified her powers to take control of some actors dressed as Nazis. Taking control of Toro as well, Lady Lotus was able to overpower the other Young Allies and capture them in a circle of fire[118]. Telling the Young Allies she intended to take over the west coast the Allies continued to resist her. She then used her powers to put them under her control. Lady Lotus then ordered Bucky and the others to pilot a B-17 and P-40 to attack Muroc Army Airfield. However, Wash snapped out of Lady Lotus' control, then freed Toro's mind with a flare gun blast, prompting Toro to use a bright flare to snap the other Allies out of her control. Free from Lady Lotus' influence, Bucky ordered the Young Allies to turn around and take the fight back to her[119]. Damaging their planes, Bucky and the Allies return and pretend that they are still under Lady Lotus' thrall, telling her that Toro died in combat. With the airbase playing along by broadcasting that they were "attacked" Bucky and the others provided ample distraction to try and obtain the gem. When Lotus used the gem to cause a powerful earthquake, Toro threw a flame at her causing her to drop the gem into a crack opened up in the ground causing the gem to be swallowed up below the Earth. Although the Young Allies were victorious that day, Lady Lotus escaped vowing that she would get the gem back again someday[120].

Rejoining Steve, the pair went on a mission into Nazi Germany where Bucky was captured by the Nazis and was brought before the Red Skull and Hitler for interrogation. He was rescued by Captain America and they fled back to their allied camp[108]. After doing a tour of the pacific[121] the pair next took a vacation in Quebec City, Canada, Bucky helped Captain America rescue General Bedoin from Nazi spies, and later back home they were captured by Nazi spies and smuggled into Nazi Germany where they broke free and assisted captured French resistance fighters in blowing up a Nazi aircraft factory and escaping[122]. With the Young Allies, Bucky clashed with the Young Nippon Society[123], a Japanese group of youth modelled to counter the Young Allies. Relocated to Panama, Bucky aided Captain America in defending the locks from attacks by escaped prisoner of war Baron von Widemouth[124]. Bucky joined Captain America in accepting a challenge by the international spy known only as the Torso. Through the course of their battle, Bucky was briefly taken hostage as the Torso attempted to escape through the Swiss mountains. When Captain America got too close to the villain, he tossed the youth down the mountain. Captain America caught Bucky before he could be harmed and the Torso fell to his death. Later, while back out on the Pacific, Bucky helped Captain America destroy a hidden Japanese base protected by the Birdmen of Pa-Pi-Ru-Gua[125]. Returning to the United States, Bucky helped Captain America fake his death in order to capture Nazi spy the Great Varda[126]. Later, with the Young Allies Bucky was kidnapped by Nazi agents who then stole a new experimental bomber and attempted to fly to Germany. The Young Allies forced the plane to land in Africa instead and they managed to escape the Nazis. Fleeing to Algiers, they assisted French Resistance fighters and Allied Forces in liberating the area from Nazi control. Returning to the United States, the Young Allies then pursued Japanese agent the Whip who stole the designs for a device that ran tests on demolition explosives. This brought them all the way to Tokyo where they were once more captured by the Imperial Japanese army. They broke free with the plans, landing another humiliating personal defeat to Hirohito, and leaving the Whip to commit suicide for his failure as they fled back to the United States[127]. Following this, Bucky again joined the Invaders in battling Nazi forces and the Red Skull[128].

Back in the United States, Bucky joined Captain America in stopping Nazi sympathizer Professor Schultz and his assistant Olaf Olsen whose mind had been transplanted into the body of a Dinosaur, battled the Phantom Engineer, the Headless Monster[129], the Laughing Death, and on a remote Pacific island they exposed a Japanese spy posing as medicine man Tu-Ra-Bi-Ka. They also prevented Nazi agent Von Broot from creating tensions between the United States and Barabia[130]. Rejoining the Young Allies, Bucky assisted them in battling the Black Dirge[131]. Back on the Pacific front, Bucky aided Captain America in locating captured American soldiers and freeing them from their captor Kioto[132]. Returning State-side, Bucky helped Captain America to put a stop to the Vulture and his Batmen[133], and prevent General Nikki from invading America with his "Cylinder of Doom"[134]. Reuniting with the Young Allies, Bucky travelled into Fascist Italy where he and his friends clashed with Benito Mussolini, and later with the assistance of Captain America battle Nazi operative Herr Executioner[135]. Bucky then joined the Invaders in a battle in France, clashing with Master Man and the Red Skull[112]. Returning to Camp Lehigh, Bucky helped Captain America stave off an attack by the Nazi's living biological weapon known as Fungi, travelling to Europe the pair destroyed a Nazi U-Boat base, and returned to the US to stop the Nazi assassin known as the Coughing Killer[136]. After smashing up a Nazi U-Boat[137], Bucky was almost blown up in London when he was strapped to a bomb by the Mole-Man but as always, he was rescued by Captain America[138].

In March Captain America and Bucky went from London to Suffolk, Cap and Bucky were given orders to stop a Nazi dig along the French countryside under the supervision of the German's new "wunderkind" named Atticus Trask, who was working on a new type of Sleeper robot for the Nazis for an operation called "Contingency X". Unknown to Cap and Bucky at the time was that Atticus was a time traveller from the future who had went back in time to use his family's Sentinel technology to build a new breed of Sentinels to eliminate Mutants, a race of super-humans that would become predominant in his future time, and in particular the heroic X-Men. Before Cap and Bucky could launch their sneak attack, their surprise was ruined by the sudden arrival of another time traveller, the mutant mercenary known as Cable, who had come to this era to stop Atticus. Convinced of Cable's purpose, Cap and Bucky assisted him as Atticus activated his Sleeper Sentinels. However, the robots were no match for the trio of heroes. The Sentinel Sleepers were destroyed, and their records on the future X-Men burned. Cable thanked Cap for his help but kept tight lip about what the future had in store. However Captain America correctly deduced that the Allies won the war since Cable was not speaking with a German accent. Cable attempted to sow confusion, Cable said goodbye to Cap in German before returning to his future time. Despite the ambiguity of their departure, Cap was more determined than ever to help win the war[139]. Cap and Bucky were next dispatched to Turkey where they stopped a Nazi agent calling himself the Ali Baba, and helped French freedom fighters defeat yet another Axis operative calling himself the Vulture[138].

In China, Bucky and Captain America learned that supposed Chinese traitor Mother Wong was really a double agent, they stopped Nazi agent the Mongoose with the aid of their friend Betty Ross, and on the home front stopped Japanese suicide bombers calling themselves the Symbol of Doom[140]. Later, Bucky almost became a patient of unnecessary surgery at the hands of the Red Skull until he is rescued by Captain America[141]. In New York City, Bucky helped Captain America expose a Japanese spy named Nogatmi who was posing as Chinese religious leader Ching-Toy[142], in India the pair put a stop to a Japanese spy posing as the goddess Kali, returning to the US they stopped the murder spree of jilted theater star the Great Rosso, and join a mission to liberate Southern Italy from Nazi occupation[143][144]. After a clash with the Gargoyle in Florida, Bucky and Cap clashed with the Man in the Steel Mask in Mexico, and stopped Nazi counterfeiter Peter Stromboli in Washington D.C.[145]. Bucky next accompanied Captain America back to the set of Democracy Pictures in California where he and Cap helped expose special effects man Lyle Dekker as a Nazi agent attempting to halt production of the new Captain America serial[146]. Bucky and Cap next stopped Dr. Necrosis' tainted blood scheme in Australia, prevented the Leopard Queen from poisoning the New York City water supply, and destroyed a Nazi tunnel built by General von Savage to invade England from France[147][148]. Back in the United States, Bucky assisted Captain America in stopping jewel thief Prince Suli[149] before assisting Cap in stopping the Red Skull's attempt to convert America into a fascist state one town at a time[150].

In December 1943, Bucky joined the Invaders on a mission to Monte Cassino, Italy with a troop of new recruits to stop a Nazi project called Operation: Time Ghost. Ambushed by Nazi troops, Bucky, Cap, the Human Torch, Toro, Namor and Private Paul Anslem found themselves pulled forward in time by the Cosmic Cube to the modern era. Appearing in modern day New York City in the middle of an attempt by the Thunderbolts to apprehend Spider-Man, Bucky joined his fellow Invaders in fighting what they thought were Nazi storm troopers before fleeing into the night to find out what happened to them[151]. Realizing they were in the future, Bucky and the others were confronted by Iron Man's Mighty Avengers who had come to contain them before they could learn too much about the future and potentially change history for the worse. Believing Iron Man's team to be Nazi operatives in a future gone mad, Bucky joined his fellow Invaders in fighting off their attackers but all save the Sub-Mariner were captured and taken aboard the SHIELD helicarrier for containment[152]. Taking advantage of the fact that his foes have underestimated his lack of super-human powers, Bucky extracted plastic explosives he had hidden in his forearm to blast himself free from his cell. Freeing Captain America, the pair attempted to escape the helicarrier but found that it was miles above Washington D.C. As Captain America fought off an army of Life Model Decoys, he sent Bucky to free the others and recover his shield. Confronting Tony Stark out of his armor attempting to make peace with him, Bucky easily beat Tony and retook Cap's shield[153]. Attempting to toss the shield back to his mentor, Bucky accidentally tossed it over the side of the helicarrier. Just then Dr. Strange's New Avengers and Namor arrived to join the battle, Bucky is given back Cap's shield by the future version of Captain America who, unknown to Bucky, is his future self[154].

The future Captain America attempted to warn Bucky about a day in 1945 where riding a drone plane will tragically change his life. However, before his future self can impart any more information, Bucky was dragged back into the battle and later extracted from the area by the New Avengers, leaving his Captain America and Namor behind to be recaptured. At Dr. Strange's Sanctum Sanctorum, Bucky learned that they were pulled to the future by the Cosmic Cube and that Paul Anselen is the key. The group tracked Paul down and find him in a nearby cemetery[155]. They get Paul to bring them to the home of his future self, whom they learn was really the one who summoned Bucky and the others to the present due to the fact that his own guilt over the death of his comrades in the war and the then recent death of Steve Rogers in the present. When Dr. Strange determined the location of the Cosmic Cube they all mobilized to retrieve it, as a time wave threatened to change history and Dr. Strange could only hold it back mystically for so long. While there, Toro learns that he died in the future and he grew upset that none of his comrades could save him[156]. They locate the Cube deep in the sewers of New York in the possession of what appears to be the demon known as D'Spayre who uses the Cube against them[157]. However, the heroes recover the Cube and it reveals that "D'Spayre" is in reality the other dimensional being known as the Vision who had been charged with protecting the Cube and nurturing it's growth. With the Cube recovered the heroes return to the SHIELD helicarrier and reunite Bucky with his comrades. There, when reunited with the future Captain America, Bucky noticed that the man has the same eyes as he does, and begins to wonder what the omen from the future may mean. Before they can return the Invaders to their own time, the younger Paul Anslen quickly grabbed the Cube and used it to go back in time in the hopes of saving his fellow soldiers in the war. This causes the timewave to break through to the present. Before history can be wiped out completely, Dr. Strange used his magics to send Bucky, Captain America, the Torch, Toro, Sub-Mariner, Iron Man, the Wasp, Ms. Marvel, Spider-Woman, Luke Cage, and Wolverine to the year 1943 to correct history[158].

Back in their own era, the Invaders were shocked to find that somehow the Red Skull obtained the Cube and has used it to take over the world. Fleeing Nazi occupied New York City in an Altantean submarine, Bucky began to chronicle their adventure in his diary so that even though their memories needed to be wiped out after this adventure that there is some record of events. They soon arrive at the shores of Europe and find that the Red Skull had erected a massive "Aryan Wall" to defend its shore[159]. Bucky accompanied the gathered heroes as they travel to the African nation of Wakanda where they join forces with the Black Panther and Nick Fury and his Howling Commandos. They use a Vibranium powered drill tank to infiltrate Nazi Germany, unaware that the Red Skull was already aware of their presence[160]. After rescuing Spitfire and Union Jack from some of the Red Skull's Dogs of War, Bucky asked Iron Man about the implications of changing the future. Stark tells Bucky that while there are many mistakes in his past that he wishes he could undo but believed that to do so would be entirely selfish, citing Paul's use of the Cube to save his wartime friends was to remedy his personal guilt over anything else. He tells Bucky that a true hero always does the right thing, even if it means damning themselves in the process. Soon they reach the boarders of Berlin where the Red Skull has summoned U-Man, Baron Blood, Master Man, Warrior Woman, Thor and Iron Cross to oppose them[161]. In the final battle, Bucky and the others trounce the Skull's forces prompting the Red Skull to attack them directly, felling them all with the Cosmic Cube. During the struggle the Wasp stole the Cube back from the Skull but he fatally stabbed her. Bucky recovered the Cube from the ground and was fatally shot by the Skull. Dying, Bucky used the device to wish that Toro could live again in the future before handing the Cube to Captain America. Ultimately, Captain America triumphed in a power struggle over the Cube with the Red Skull and Paul Anslen used the Cube to restore everything back to normal, restoring Bucky back to life. Although his memory of events were wiped clean, the diary Bucky had written retained and in re-reading it, Bucky resolved to maintain the proper course of history and live up to the ideal of a true hero even if it meant his untimely demise[162].

1944

With history restored to normal, Captain America and Bucky resumed their solo adventures. While in Europe, they saved an America liaison from the clutches of torture expert Dr. Agony, stopped the Japanese agents called Seven Sons of Satan in India, and the Red Skull's attempt to use a device that utilized the northern lights to wipe out allied machines[163]. Next, Captain America and Bucky foiled Japanese agents from exploiting land owned by Death Valley Pete, destroyed a secret paradise hidden in the Northern ice where a Japanese scientist was creating an army of Cellmen to invade America, and clashed with the insane Dr. Emil Natas who claimed to have clashed with the two heroes in past lives over the centuries[164][165]. In Massachusetts, Captain America and Bucky stopped the Ghost Harpooner from murdering the crew of the Moby Dick, defended the Crawford Bomber plant from Japanese agents the Death Riders, and stopped Nazi agent Carl von Brummel from bombing American ships departing from New York[166][167]. When Nazi agents kidnapped French national and radio personality Jules Durrain, Captain America and Bucky rescued him so he could continue to inspire the French people to revolt against their Nazi oppressors[168]. After, Captain America and Bucky were called back to Castle Frankenstein by Anna Frankenstein who was attempting to lead them into a trap with her Nazi benefactor so that they could slay the heroes with their own monster. Cap and Bucky survived the encounter, however Anna, her lover and their monster did not fare so well[169].

Reunited with the Young Allies, Bucky assisted the group in stopping a Japanese agent known as the Head from learning Allied secrets from the severed heads of officials he murdered. The group then clashed with the Nazi scientist known as the Mad Mechanic, destroying his laboratory in the Swiss Alps[170]. Cap and Bucky then defended General Haywood and guests from the Jester of Death, prevented an ambitious lighthouse keepers assistant from selling a powerful meteor fragment to the Axis powers. Later they rescued a secret civilization on a floating island from Nazi subjugation[171].

In April 1944, Captain America and Bucky were sent to Nazi Germany to assist Nick Fury and the Howling Commandos on a secret mission. Infiltrating the Red Skull's castle, they rescued Howard and Maria Stark from the Skull, who was trying to force Howard to build atomic weapons for the Nazis[172]. Travelling with Bucky to Vichy, France, Cap rescued the people there from the Nazis and their murderous Gargoyles. Back home, Cap and Bucky stopped death row inmate Tiger Duncan from escaping prison, and later stopped his still living brain when it possessed the prison doctor and forced him to murder the men responsible for his execution. In New York, Cap and Bucky helped uncover the so-called Schoolmaster's murder class hidden in a secret room of the Greystone building[173]. Bucky was later present during the celebrations over the Invader's victory in capturing the German battle ship the Deutchland[174].

In June of 1944, Captain America and Bucky infiltrated a Nazi base along the beaches of Normandy and took out their automatic cannons before the beginning of the D-Day invasion[9]. Bucky joined Cap in fighting the Nazis in Normandy [175] scoring many major victories for the allies[112]. Following the Battle of Normandy, Bucky and the Invaders celebrated their victory with the Crazy SUES[176]. On June 5, Bucky and the Young Allies helped capture criminal Killer Bane. When Bane and a group of four other killers were resurrected, Bucky and the others realized they were vulnerable to fire and had their teammate Toro burn the crooks alive[177]. Bucky returned to England along with Steve Rogers. After Steve was deployed to Nazi occupied France, Bucky was left behind. When Nazis sabotaged the base, Bucky went into action but was captured by Nazis and taken to Greymore Castle as a prisoner[178]. Captain America attempted to save Bucky, but was captured by the Nazis as well who hoped to put him in a V2 rocket that as aimed at 10 Downing Street[179]. However Cap broke free and freed Bucky, and with the assistance of Celia Rawlings defeated the Nazis, although Celia sacrificed her life. Her repentant brother Cedric, who built the V2 rocket for the Nazis, then helped Cap and Bucky launch it on Nazi forces in France. The two heroes then fled from the castle as it exploded[180].

Returning to France, Bucky continued to fight against Nazi forces with Captain America and Peggy Carter, a French Resistance fighter and Cap's romantic interest at the time[181]. While fighting in France, Bucky was briefly separated from Cap. However, Bucky was unaware due to the fact ran into Cap's future self who was transported back in time. Due to an exposure to Gama rays, the future Captain America had forgotten all his memories of the future. When the Hulk and She-Hulk arrived from the future and determined the Captain America with Bucky was from their own era, they recovered him and returned to the future. Bucky was soon reunited with the modern day Captain America, leaving him to wonder who he was fighting with[182]. Briefly returning to the United States, Cap and Bucky fought the evil Dr. Botan and his plant/human hybrids[183]. With the Young Allies, Bucky traveled to India where he clashed with Tehru the mystic and his Japanese masters[184][185][186]. Cap and Bucky were next ordered by General MacArthur to learn what they could about a planned Japanese attack on US soil. Smuggled into Tokyo, they discovered General Yokima's tunnel that would bring an invasion force to the US and destroyed it. Stateside, Cap and Bucky failed to stop the murder of millionaire J.T. Flemming but caught his killer, and in Europe saved General Haywood and Sgt. Duffy from the Baron of Horror Castle[187]. Bucky next assisted the Invaders in fighting Japanese forces along the Pacific. Their fight was abruptly ended when the Red Skull and Warrior Woman attempted to capture the Sub-Mariner to learn the secret location of Atlantis. They captured Captain America instead and escaped. Bucky and the other Invaders eventually tracked Cap down and rescued him, but the Skull and Warrior Woman managed to evade capture[188].

In August of that year Bucky and the Invaders continued to assist the Allied Forces, taking part in Operation Dragoon to liberate France from Nazi occupation[189]. During further conflict in the region, Cap was pushed out of the way of German bombs by Bucky[190]. Following the liberation of France, Nick Fury had learned that Baron Zemo was spotted in the region meeting with an early incarnation of the Hydra organization. He recruited Cap, Bucky, Peggy Carter, and another super solider known as Codename: Bravo on a mission to infiltrate the Hydra base. However, as they did not know the bases exact location, Fury enlisted the aid of a young boy named Jimmy Jupiter who could transported them to the base through the Hydra agent's dreams by travelling through the mystical realm known as Nowhere. While Bucky, Cap and Peggy clashed with Hydra forces, Jimmy attempted to transport Bravo and his troops into the Hydra base. However there was a spy in their midst, who bludgeoned Jimmy with a typewriter putting him in a coma, and trapping Bravo, his troops, the Hydra agents and their advanced weapons in the realm of Nowhere[191]. Later, Captain America and Bucky were returned home to make a guest appearance at a North American Aviation defence factory. There he met with female factory workers who were devoted to their job, not out of any sense of patriotism, but to insure their husbands returned from war faster[192]. While in the Untied States, Captain America and Bucky exposed the so-called Shadow Monster as a Nazi spy. They were then shipped off to the South Pacific where they stopped Baron Histo and his Kamikaze piloted missiles, and in the Pacific destroyed Doctor Tokotio's submarine the Sea Dragon from destroying a convoy of troop ships headed for the Pacific Theater[193].

Returning to the United States again, Captain America and Bucky began investigating the strange disappearance of Paul Malone who went missing while on a South American exploration and learned that his uncle had become obsessed with the local tribes people and sought to eliminate all whites in favour of this tribe[194]. Later, Captain America and Bucky foiled a sabotage plot by the Japanese spy known as Monstro[195]. In September of '44, Captain America and Bucky led American troops through Arnheim, in the Netherlands to try and capture the Red Skull. There they had to fight through Allied troops who were turned into mindless zombies loaded with explosives by the Skull[5]. Clashing with the Skull, Captain America protected Bucky and his troops from a grenade tossed by the Red Skull, allowing the Skull to escape[196]. Later, Bucky joins Cap on a trip to Texas where they met with female factory workers[192].

Bucky then joined Captain America in travelling to India where they clashed with a Japanese spy posing as the Prophet of Hate, rescuing Sgt. Duffy who foolishly went after the Prophet alone. Back in the United States, they helped Betty Dean expose an elaborate insurance scam perpetuated by the East Shipping Company and protected the plans for the P-31 bomber from the terrorist for hire known as Black Hand[197][198]. Reuniting with the Young Allies, Bucky helps stop the radioative Nazi the Green Death and stopped Japanese spy Wilton Wilkes from using his insanity ray across America[199]. In October of 1944, Bucky joined Captain America on a mission behind enemy lines to investigate claims that the Red Skull had obtained a powerful occult artifact. Along with Nick Fury and the Howling Commandos they discovered that the Skull had obtained the Eye of Agamotto. However when they pursued the villain, the Eye's power dispatched him to the Dark Dimension. With the aid of Ancient One, Bucky and the others were transported to the Dark Dimension to recover the stolen item, lest its power be used for evil. There they found that the Skull had brokered a deal with the Dark Dimension's ruler Dormammu allowing him 24 hours to destroy his enemies. Although Bucky was injured during the course of the conflict, the heroes reclaimed the Eye and defeated the Skull who was then banished back to Earth by Dormammu. Soon a deal was brokered with Dormammu and the heroes were allowed to return to their home dimension with the Eye, and returned it to the Ancient One[200]. As the winter season began, Bucky followed Cap and the Howlers back behind enemy lines to destroy a lab that the Red Skull was using to create biological weapons[201].

Returning to the United States, Bucky assisted Captain America in capturing the costumed criminals calling themselves the Skeletons of the Glowing Death, defended a bomber factory from Nazi agent Major von Kaulus and his swamp creature, and put an end to the career of a female criminal calling herself the Cat Woman[202]. Later, Cap and Bucky put a stop to the murderous Lupo and his three killer apes[203]. They also put a stop to Japanese saboteur the Yellow Claw and his Mole Men[204]. Bucky next joined Cap on a mission with American troops in Bastogne, Belgium. There they found a unit of troop slaughtered by the Norse creature known as the Fenris Wolf. The pair tried to fight the creature off, but were no match for its might. They were saved from death by Thor, who had learned of the creature being loose on Earth and captured it before Cap and Bucky's astonished eyes[205]. Back in the United States, Bucky joined Cap in attempting to capture criminal "Terrible Tom" Garett. To their surprise Garett had teamed up with sorcerer Terdu who used his magic to summon criminals from out of the past. The duo battled Captain Kidd, Jack the Ripper, as well as robbers Jesse and Frank James. The heroes defeated the time displaced crooks, sending them back to their own time, which led to Terdu's demise, and Garett's surrender[206][207].

On December 6, 1944 Bucky and Cap rejoined the Crazy SUES and entered Saarlaurtern, Germany where they once more clashed with Nazi forces[208]. However the outcome of this mission is unknown[209]. Later that month, Cap, Bucky and the Howling Commandos were involved in the Battle of the Bulge. During the fighting, they rescued Private Stan Klein who was pinned down by enemy fire[210]. On Christmas Eve, the Invaders reunited in England to celebrate the holidays during a lull in the fighting. Bucky was determined to make Toro a man by taking him to a nearby Christmas dance and getting him to dace with a girl. Asking Cap to join them, he declined telling them that he had things to study. Bucky told Cap that the war would still be there tomorrow and that he should come out and enjoy himself. Cap eventually took Bucky up on his advice and when the pair spotted Toro dancing with a beautiful girl went looking for mistletoe to escalate things for the pair[211].

1945

On January 2nd 1945 Bucky and Cap briefly returned to the United States where they exposed the murderous inheritance scheme of Laird Carson[212].[213]. Back in the United States, Bucky joined Cap in exposing yet another murderous inheritance plot, this time perpetuated by the widow of the late Silas Matison. When mobster Butch Cantwell framed Captain America with crimes while wearing a bullet proof Captain America costume, Bucky assisted Cap in clearing his name and bringing Cantwell to justice. The pair later dismantled the Snake Skulls cult who were using Puff Adder venom to kill wealthy old men and claim their fortunes[214].

He then returned to Europe with Cap where they rejoined the Invaders on a mission to the Netherlands[215]. There they hunted down Nazi scientist Arnim Zola, whom they discovered had created a virus that mutated humans into monstrous creatures driven by rage that infect all those they come into contact with. After a clash with Iron Cross, U-Man, Master Man, and Warrior Woman, the team seemingly slew Arnim Zola and destroyed his rocket containing the virus. Realizing the villagers had been infected and they could spread the virus all over town, the Invaders made the tough decision to kill all the villagers[216]. Unknown to the Invaders at the time, one partially infected villager escaped, and would plague them all many decades later[217]. In February, 1945, Cap and Bucky investigate reports of vampires in the town of Bastogn, Belgium. While there they are forced to kill American actress Mary Arnett who was in the area for a USO show. soon they find that the original vampire was a young girl who was transformed into a vampire during the Nazis occupation of the town, and are forced to kill her[218]. In March on the eve of Bucky's 20th birthday, Cap takes Bucky out to a bar to celebrate the special occasion after questioning a Nazi spy about Baron Zemo's latest activities[4]. Returning to the United States, Bucky aids Captain America in stopping the national crimewave commanded by Crimorto, and stop Nazi operative Professor Tody's grisly plot to convert bodies stolen from the local morgue into mines to use against American ships[219].

James and Steve are then briefly places on guard duty along the Great Wall of China where they defend it from Japanese invaders with the help of Lao-Chung, they find out later that they were aided by the spirit of a man who helped guard the wall from Mongolian invaders many centuries before[220]. Returning to the United States, Captain America and Bucky solved the so-called "Totem Pole" murders perpetuated by an insane Native American tribe[221]. Reuniting with the Young Allies, Bucky helped them defend an American base on the South Pacific from Japanese youth suicide bombers, then returned to the United States and brought the Shiv to justice[222]. Learning that Arnim Zola survived their last encounter, Cap and Bucky returned to Nazi Germany to track him down. Along the way they crossed paths with the time displaced Deadpool and Hydra Bob. While the strange pair convinced Captain America that they were really Canadian super-soldiers, Bucky was not convinced. Taking advantage of the fact that most dismissed him as a boy sidekick, Bucky attempted to get answers out of the more cowardly Hydra Bob. However, chronal energies preventing the two from altering history would wipe out Bucky's short term memory. Eventually, they found Zola's lab where they clashed with his latest creation. When the heroes defeated their attacked, Deadpool was about to put it out of its misery when Bucky, unable to trust their allies, shot Deadpool in the head. Suddenly Deadpool and Hydra Bob where pulled out of that time period leaving Cap and Bucky to wonder what happened[223][224].

Back stateside, Cap and Bucky prevented the Satyr from frightening people away from the town of Hamilton, and prevented the robberies of the super-strong Dr. Colosso[212][225]. When sent back over to Europe to rescue a captured scientist who was attempting to defect, Bucky confided in Cap his fear of heights and the details of his fathers death. When Captain America told Bucky that there was nothing he should fear the pair air dropped below and rescued their man from a Nazi prison[2]. On April 12, 1945, Bucky informed Captain America of President Roosevelt's death. Cap would tell his partner that they should keep on fighting the war and mourn his loss after the battle had been won. They then departed to investigate reports of Baron Zemo's plans to rob a new experimental drone plane[226]. When Bucky was injured in combat, he was placed in a war hospital to recover. Visited by Cap, Bucky told Cap about his dreams of being rich and famous after the war and his wish to continue being Cap's sidekick if he continued to go into action as Captain America[2].

"Death" of Bucky

However, Bucky's dreams of the future would not come to pass, as tragedy would soon strike the two heroes during the final days of the war. Captain America and Bucky were assigned to guard a secret allied drone plane[227]. When Nazi agents break into the hanger, Cap and Bucky are there to stop them[228][2]. However, this is a distraction that allows Baron Zemo to enter the facility[229]. Activating his Humanoid, and both are attacked by Captain America and Bucky. Despite the two heroes efforts they are both bested in combat[2][229] Zemo then dresses the heroes in standard military uniforms[229]. The two heroes revive and find themselves captive on a secret Nazi island base on the Channel, and are tortured by Baron Zemo[230].

Waking up sometime later, Cap manages to free himself and Bucky and commander a motorcycle as Zemo launches the drone plane with a bomb on board on a course to bomb Allied Forces[2][231][232]. Bucky jumps onto the drone plane in an attempt to disarm the bomb, and Cap joins him, and tries to convince Bucky to let go. It has been believed that Bucky's arm gets caught in the plane and it then exploded[227][233][231][2][232]. However, on that day Bucky was carrying the diary which contained passages of his travels to the future in 1943, the only record of the incident at that point in history, suggesting that Bucky had known his fate, and having seen the importance of preserving history allowed himself to meet his fate[162]. The explosion caused both men fall into the English channel[231][234][232][86] and Bucky's diary was lost in the waters[162].

Zemo then broadcast news of his defeat of Captain America and Bucky, which was overheard by Colonel Vasily Karpov who recovered Bucky's mangled body from the waters. After searching for traces of the Super-Soldier serum in his body, Bucky was put in cryogenic suspension[235].

While the Daily Bugle reported the supposed deaths of Captain America and Bucky[236], the public was soon convinced that their national hero and his sidekick lived on. This was due to President Harry Truman appointing the William Nasland and Yankees Batboy Fred Davis Jr. to take up the identities of Captain America and Bucky[237]. Davis posed as Bucky, even taking up James' position with the Young Allies[238] and served as Bucky with Nasland until his death and his replacement Jeff Mace[239] until both retired from crime fighting by the end of 1949[240]. In 1954, the role of Captain America was taken up by college professor William Burnside and his student Jack Monroe taking up the part of Bucky[241]. However, improper use of the Super Soldier formula in both men led to them being driven insane and placed in suspended animation[236].

While Steve Rogers remained in suspended animation during this entire time and eventually revived, for the longest time it was believed that Bucky had died then though no body was ever recovered. Nobody was aware that the Russians had recovered Bucky's body or what he eventually became...

WINT001

James Barnes as Winter Soldier.

Winter Soldier

1950s

In 1954, he was revived and outfitted with a replacement bionic arm which had been made after a Soviet spy had recovered schematics for cybernetic appendage. The arm was to be replaced by a newer and more advanced one every time there was an improvement in their technology. While he had no memory of his past, Barnes still had considerable physical skill. He was indoctrinated to hate the West and was provided with mental implants during sensory deprivation, molding him into the perfect assassin. It was during this period that he met Natasha Romanoff, whom he helped train in combat while she was undergoing espionage training. They fell in love and James often snuck out into her sleeping quarters just so he could see her. Although Natasha was promised to Alexi Shostakov, she still loved James more. This relationship did not last. Natasha learned that when Barnes was not needed for an operation or assassination he was kept in cryostasis in order to cease his aging.

1960s

1970s

1980s

Modern Era

Reunion

He used to conduct many strategic assassinations across the world and would sometimes stay in one nation for extended periods. One of his targets was Itsu, the pregnant wife of his wartime ally James Howlett (known then as Logan). However, after one of his missions, Barnes did not report back on time. Agents found him wandering in New York City and recovered him. In 1983, he was assigned to accompany Vasily Karpov, an elderly general that had served in WWII as bodyguard. He maintained the position until the general's death five years later. Barnes had demonstrated mental instability in some of his later missions and was placed into stasis at one of Karpov's storage facilities which had been inherited by his protégé, General Aleksander Lukin. Following the USSR's collapse, Lukin went rogue and established the Kronas Oil Corporation.

In order to cease the Red Skull's new Cosmic Cube, General Lukin reactivated Barnes to assassinate the Skull, although neither of them realized had simultaneously transferred his consciousness into Lukin's body. After assassinating the adventurer Nomad (Jack Monroe) and framing him for the Skull's assassination, Barnes detonated a fire bomb in Philadelphia which claimed many victims. Their deaths helped power the Cosmic Cube, but Lukin who had been disturbed by the Cube's effect gave it to Barnes to store in a nuclear-safe vault in West Virginia. During investigations by Nick Fury and S.H.I.E.L.D., Captain America (Steve Rogers) discovered the true identity of the Lukin's assassin and confronted him at the vault. The two engaged in combat until Rogers gained possession of the cube and used its powers to restore James' lost memories. Overcome with remorse, Barnes used the cube to teleport away and went underground to search for Lukin and the Red Skull, still unaware that they were now one and the same.

After a confrontation with the now X-Man Wolverine in Serbia, Barnes managed to track Lukin to England where the Skull unleashed a sleeper robot, salvaged from the Eisendorf excavation. Barnes abandoned his initial intentions to seek and eliminate Lukin to aid Rogers in destroying the robot. This was the first time in over half a century that they worked together, but he fled afterwards unable to face his mentor. He was revealed to be an undercover operative working for Nick Fury, who had gone underground after leaving SHIELD. Barnes encountered the Young Avengers Patriot, Hawkeye, and Vision on one of his assignments and learned how his and Cap's adventures had inspired contemporary heroes. He also reconciled with his former Invaders teammate Namor, assisted Wolverine with incapacitating his son Daken, and comforted a cynical Patriot (Elijah Bradley).


Death of Captain America

Following Captain America's assassination, Barnes resolved to kill the two men he held responsible: the Red Skull and current S.H.I.E.L.D. Director Tony Stark (Iron Man). He acquired Cap's indestructible shield after defeating Black Widow, his former lover and student, in combat when she was assigned to move it to another location. Barnes then tracked Lukin and eventually confronted him only to discover his quarry was not a lead, but the Red Skull himself. Eventually captured by the Skull's forces, he resisted brainwashing by Dr. Faustus and was rescued by Falcon with the help of Sharon Carter, who was pretending to still be under Faustus' control. Barnes was then placed into SHIELD custody, but escaped and confronted Stark. He disabled his armor and fought him to a standstill only to learn his mentor's final requests of Stark: to rescue Barnes from his descent into violence and insanity, and to pass the Captain America identity to a successor. Stark felt the best way to honor both his friend's requests was for Barnes to become Captain America. Barnes agreed on the provision that his mind be cleansed of any remaining mental implants, and that he would answer to no one, not even Stark and S.H.I.E.L.D.

As Captain America

Secret Invasion Vol 1 6 Textless

Fighting the Skrull Invasion

Now residing in Steve Rogers S.H.I.E.L.D. safe house, he outfitted himself with an alternate version of Cap's costume built by Tony Stark and, carrying his indestructible shield along with other weapons, Barnes quickly reacted against the efforts by the Red Skull and his accomplices to spread panic. Although effective in battle, he had yet to win the support or respect of either the US government or the general public. A number of civilians and costumed adventurers also disapproved of his current wardrobe; especially Clint Barton (Ronin, A.K.A Hawkeye). Despite the negative attention Barnes received, he continued to fight terrorism as Captain America and was often aided by Falcon (Sam Wilson), despite his initial disapproval of him. Together the two fought an A.I.M cell headed by Arnim Zola. The Red Skull did not remain quiet for long. He responded to Barnes' meddling by sending the Grand Director, whose mind had been molded by Doctor Faustus to believe he was Steve Rogers and Captain America after him; James barely survived the confrontation, and was forced by Falcon to retreat. The two investigated the Grand Director's next course of actions after he escaped from the Skull's grasp and was becoming mentally unstable; most of it was hiding and running from detection by A.I.M. and the Red Skull. James was finally recognized by United States government and the public as hero after foiling an assassination attempt on both Republican and Democratic candidates for political debates by Sin, daughter of the Red Skull. He also revamped his relationship with the Black Widow, one of his few remaining friends who is consistently faithful to him. It was not long before he became involved in major conflicts such as an Invasion by extraterrestrial Skrulls along many other superheroes in New York. Wanting to continue to living his predecessor's legacy, James invited Clint Barton and the New Avengers to his safe-house, offering it as their base of operations as well as his own allegiance to their cause.

Although he was reformed, there were still a few officials from both America and other foreign nations who had not all forgotten his past as the Winter Soldier.

Captain America: Reborn

Bucky found out from Sharon that she had not really killed the original Captain America. As explained by Doctor Zola to Osborn, Rogers was trapped in a fixed position of time and space. But since Sharon ruined the machine that was suppose to bring him back, Steve was reliving his own past. Bucky and Black Widow attempted to steal the device from H.A.M.M.E.R, but they were captured. Osborn sent Widow back to Sharon with an ultimatum: either she would turn herself in, as Osborn had implicated her as Rogers' second shooter, or he would kill Bucky. Bucky was then sent into the custody of the Thunderbolts, who told him that he would be inducted into their group once Rogers was brought back. However, Bucky was secretly freed by Ant-Man and then rescued by Falcon.[242]

After a period of reflection, Barnes decide to give up the Captain America identity in favor of the revived Rogers. Before giving up the Captain America mantle, Bucky and the Black Widow decide to fight and throw the shield one last time. Coincidentally, Rogers was suited up and ready to fight crime that night as well until he witnessed Bucky and the Black Widow depart. Rogers decides to peruse the dynamic duo and upon doing so realized that Bucky would be well off as Captain America. A quick battle ensues when Bucky and the Black Widow encounter Mr. Hyde and his henchman. After the two heroes dispense with the henchman, Mr. Hyde attempts to escape until Rogers joins the battle and defeats him. Quickly after, Rogers officially and respectfully hands the Captain America mantle over to Bucky giving Bucky his blessing.

Two Americas

Who will weld shield1 pg23

Barnes succeeding a retiring Rogers

Wolverine Weapon X

In a distant future, approximately 25 years from Marvel time, a company known as Roxxon begins to send Deathlok cyborgs into the past and assassinate all super heroes in attempt to monopolize the US and possibly the world. Their only opposing force is a group of rebels that just so happens to consist of Wolverine. Their prime directive now is to find and assassinate the rebellion group leader known as the General. After assassinating the Punisher in an unknown time, their next target happens to be the current Captain America, James Buchanan Barnes. It has been hinted that the General is possibly Bucky himself because of his refusal to attempt to save himself possibly distorting the future time line the General has fought so hard for.

Fear Itself

When Skadi led her attack on Washington, D.C. Bucky was there to oppose her; however, her power proved too great and he was beat to with-in an inch of his life. Before passing out, Bucky told Black Widow to warn people about the Serpent.[243] Barnes was rushed to Fury, who gave him the Infinity Formula, which saved his life and restored him. Bucky decided to stay underground and has returned to his Winter Soldier identity. Bucky's LMD was buried at the Arlington National Cemetery.[244]

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